A look at the PCRF in EPC Networks, and the Charging Rules that lay at the heart of it all.
How much overhead is used to send the message “K” back to an SMS?
Using Kamailio with a Diameter Routing Agent
An overview of the who, how and why of Non-IP Data Deliver in NB-IoT cellular services.
A look at why we’d want to apply translations to Diameter AVPs inside a Diameter Routing Agent
Diving back into the world of Diameter Routing Agents with a look at the logic that defines how a DRA routes traffic from one place to another.
An introduction to Diameter Routing Agents, covering what is a DRA is and why you need them in your life / network.
Recently I had a strange issue I thought I’d share. Using Kamailio as an Interrogating-CSCF, Kamailio was getting the S-CSCF details from the User-Authorization-Answer’s “Server-Name” (602) AVP. The value was set to: sip:scscf.mnc001.mcc001.3gppnetwork.org:5060 But the I-CSCF was only looking up A-Records for scscf.mnc001.mcc001.3gppnetwork.org, not using DNS-SRV. The problem? The Server-Name I had configured as a […]
A deep dive into Mobile Originated MMS via the MM1 Interface
A brief look at International Signaling Point Code numbering and what it all means.
Getting from Point Code A to Point Code Z.
Setting up our GNS3 environment with a bunch of SS7 Nodes
Looking at the basic components that make up our SS7 Networks.
Taking a look at the basics of the SS7 Protocol Stack.
A look at attack vectors the NRF opens up in #5G Core networks, and the mitigations recommended by 3GPP.
Looking for Love in the 5G Core?
Let’s look at our matchmaker – The Network Repository Function in 5G Core.
There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and 5G is the same – services running through a 5G Standalone core need to be billed. In 5G Core Networks, the SMF (Session Management Function) reaches out to the CHF (Charging Function) to perform online charging, via the Nchf_ConvergedCharging Service Based Interface (aka reference point). Like […]
A glimpse into the complexities of prepaid billing (Online Charging) Diameter based networks.
A look at how the HSS can update the profile of an already in-use subscription using Insert Subscriber Data Request/Response.