Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM Security

Some thoughts on NRF Security in 5G Core

A look at attack vectors the NRF opens up in #5G Core networks, and the mitigations recommended by 3GPP.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM

If you like Pina Coladas, and service the control plane – Intro to NRF in 5GC

Looking for Love in the 5G Core?

Are you a lonely UDM from MCC 001 MNC 001, just looking for a connection?

PLMN 901/70, NRF, seeks same.

Let’s look at our matchmaker – The Network Repository Function in 5G Core.

Categories
GSM IMS / VoLTE Mobile Networks

The Surprisingly Complicated World of SMS: Special Characters

A look at how characters are encoded in an SMS.

Categories
5G SA EPC LTE Mobile Networks SDM

Backing up and Restoring Open5GS

How to backup and restore Open5Gs config between servers

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

GTP Extension Headers (PDU session user plane protocol) in 5GC

How GTP is extended in 5G Core Networks to support extra QoS functionality like Reflective QoS and Delay Indicators

Categories
GSM IMS / VoLTE Mobile Networks

The Surprisingly Complicated World of SMS: Concatenated / Multipart SMS

Another deep dive into deceptively simple seeming functions to do with SMS.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

Framed Routing in 5G

5GC includes native support for framed-routing.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

Reflective QoS in 5G

A great new feature of #5G Core Networks is Reflective QoS – Where QoS of the traffic coming to a UE is reflected on the QoS coming out.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks

SMS in 5GC

The first SMS was sent in 1993, and all these years later as 5G rolls out, we’re still supporting it.

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards

5G Online Charging with the Nchf_ConvergedCharging SBI

There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and 5G is the same – services running through a 5G Standalone core need to be billed. In 5G Core Networks, the SMF (Session Management Function) reaches out to the CHF (Charging Function) to perform online charging, via the Nchf_ConvergedCharging Service Based Interface (aka reference point). Like […]

Categories
EPC Mobile Networks SDM

Jaffa Cakes explain the nuances between Centralized vs Decentralized Online Charging in 3GPP Networks

A look at Centralized vs DeCentralized Online Charging with the aid of sugar.

Categories
Mobile Networks RF

Converting Elevation Data (DEM) for Forsk Atoll

After headaches importing elevation (DEM) data into Forsk Atoll, I found a better mechanism for converting them, I’d been having issues with as soon as the elevation passed 255 meters, resetting to 0 in the PNG as it didn’t understand values beyond this. I was able to open the elevation data in GlobalMapper (You can […]

Categories
5G SA Mobile Networks SDM

EIR in 5G Networks (N5g-eir_EquipmentIdentityCheck)

A look at the Equipment Identity Register in 5G Core

Categories
EPC LTE Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM Voice over IP

Basics of EPC/LTE Online Charging (OCS)

A glimpse into the complexities of prepaid billing (Online Charging) Diameter based networks.

Categories
5G SA EPC Linux LTE Mobile Networks

Open5GS without NAT

Setting up Open5Gs without a NAT requirement, and the routing required to do so.

Categories
EPC LTE Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM

Diameter – Insert Subscriber Data Request / Response

A look at how the HSS can update the profile of an already in-use subscription using Insert Subscriber Data Request/Response.

Categories
EPC LTE Mobile Networks SDM SIM Cards

PS Data Off

How turning mobile data off, doesn’t, in LTE and 5G.

Categories
EPC Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards Voice over IP

Docker & BIND as an ENUM Playground

A Bind environment in a Docker container for experimenting and learning ENUM for DNS based Call Routing.

Categories
IMS / VoLTE Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards SDM Voice over IP

ENUM – DNS based Call Routing

Using DNS to resolve E.164 phone numbers to routable SIP URIs

Categories
GSM LTE Mobile Networks RFCs & Standards

Looking inside the MMS Exchange (With call flow and PCAP)

A look at Multimedia Messaging (MMS) in 3GPP Networks and how it actually works.