Recent Posts

SMS in 5GC

SMS in 5GC

24/07/20213 min read
The first SMS was sent in 1993, and all these years later as 5G rolls out, we’re still supporting it.
5G Online Charging with the Nchf_ConvergedCharging SBI

5G Online Charging with the Nchf_ConvergedCharging SBI

18/07/20216 min read
There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and 5G is the same – services running through a 5G Standalone core need to be billed. In 5G Core Networks, the SMF (Session Management Function) reaches out to the CHF (Charging Function) to perform online charging, via the Nchf_ConvergedCharging Service Based Interface (aka reference point). Like […]
Jaffa Cakes explain the nuances between Centralized vs Decentralized Online Charging in 3GPP Networks

Jaffa Cakes explain the nuances between Centralized vs Decentralized Online Charging in 3GPP Networks

17/07/20218 min read
A look at Centralized vs DeCentralized Online Charging with the aid of sugar.
Converting Elevation Data (DEM) for Forsk Atoll

Converting Elevation Data (DEM) for Forsk Atoll

11/07/20211 min read
After headaches importing elevation (DEM) data into Forsk Atoll, I found a better mechanism for converting them, I’d been having issues with as soon as the elevation passed 255 meters, resetting to 0 in the PNG as it didn’t understand values beyond this. I was able to open the elevation data in GlobalMapper (You can […]
EIR in 5G Networks (N5g-eir_EquipmentIdentityCheck)

EIR in 5G Networks (N5g-eir_EquipmentIdentityCheck)

10/07/20213 min read
A look at the Equipment Identity Register in 5G Core
Basics of EPC/LTE Online Charging (OCS)

Basics of EPC/LTE Online Charging (OCS)

04/07/20217 min read
A glimpse into the complexities of prepaid billing (Online Charging) Diameter based networks.

HTTP PUT call recordings from FreeSWITCH

03/07/20211 min read
Using mod_httpapi to HTTP POST call recordings to a remote server
Open5GS without NAT

Open5GS without NAT

27/06/20213 min read
Setting up Open5Gs without a NAT requirement, and the routing required to do so.
ENUM in Practice with Kamailio

ENUM in Practice with Kamailio

26/06/20212 min read
Using ENUM to resolve E.164 numbers into SIP URIs using Kamailio.
Diameter – Insert Subscriber Data Request / Response

Diameter – Insert Subscriber Data Request / Response

20/06/20212 min read
A look at how the HSS can update the profile of an already in-use subscription using Insert Subscriber Data Request/Response.
PS Data Off

PS Data Off

19/06/20212 min read
How turning mobile data off, doesn’t, in LTE and 5G.
Remember Bash History Forever

Remember Bash History Forever

13/06/20211 min read
A few .bashrc tweaks to improve the ‘history’ command
The Anti-Digit Dialing League

The Anti-Digit Dialing League

12/06/20215 min read
The strange history and triumphs of a group formed to protest the removal of letters from the dialing plan.
Docker & BIND as an ENUM Playground

Docker & BIND as an ENUM Playground

06/06/202114 min read
A Bind environment in a Docker container for experimenting and learning ENUM for DNS based Call Routing.
ENUM – DNS based Call Routing

ENUM – DNS based Call Routing

05/06/20217 min read
Using DNS to resolve E.164 phone numbers to routable SIP URIs