Category Archives: CGrateS

CGrateS – Exporting CDRs

Having rated CDRs in CGrateS is great, but in reality, you probably want to get them into a billing system, CSV file, S3 bucket, CRM, invoice, Grafana, SQL table, etc, etc.

The Event Exporter Service (EES (previously called CDRe)) handles exporting CDRs from CGrateS.

Like everything in CGrateS, it’s highly configurable, and, again, like everything in CGrateS, supports every combination of services you can think of, plus a stack you haven’t thought of.

CDRs can be exported one of two ways, in real time, as the CDR is generated (online), or after the fact, exporting from the database containing the CDRs (offline).

Exporting in realtime (online) is a great option if you don’t want (or need) to store the CDRs in CGrateS; if you’re just using CGrateS to rate calls and spit them into a seperate system, this is a fantastic option, as it allows your CGrateS instances to remain light and not get clogged up with lots of old CDRs – That said, of course you can export the CDRs in realtime and still store them in CGrateS, that’s also a totally valid approach as well.

The more traditional approach is offline CDR export, where periodically or when an event is triggered, you scrape up a pile of CDRs and send them to your external systems.

For both options, we’ll need to define at least one exporter in our cgrates.json config file. For this example we’ll define a HTTP POST that we will trigger for realtime (online) CDR exporting, and a CSV file we dump to periodically when called from the API.

So first things first, we enable the EES module in the config:

"ees": {
		"enabled": true,
		"exporters": [
		]
	}

We’ll start with defining one exporter, named CSVExporter, that will output files to a folder named “testCSV” in the /tmp/ directory, but you can plonk these files wherever you like:

"ees": {
		"enabled": true,
		"synchronous": true,
		"exporters": [
			{
				"id": "CSVExporter",
				"type": "*file_csv",
				"export_path": "/tmp/testCSV",
				"flags": ["*log"],
				"attempts": 1,
				"synchronous": true,
				"field_separator": ",",
			},
		]
	}

We’ve got a lot of different types of export available to us, but type *file_csv is the easiest, so that’s where we’ll start.

Setting synchronous to true will mean we’ll only run one export job at a time, but it also means we’ll get back the result via the API, which will allow us to keep track of the ID of the last record we updated, so we don’t export the same record multiple times, more on this later.

Flags allows us to, if we wanted, bounce the event through AttributeS, for example, by adding *attributes to the flags, but in this case, it’s just logging to syslog.

Of course, just enabling ees won’t actually send calls to it, we’ll need to add “ees_conns“: [“*localhost”], to “apiers”: and “cdrs” so they know to bounce the events through it:

	"apiers": {
		"enabled": true,
                ...
		"ees_conns": ["*localhost"],
	},

	"cdrs": {
		"enabled": true,
		...
		"ees_conns": ["*localhost"],
	},

Okay, enough talk, let’s get exporting some CDRs!

If you’ve already got CDRs on your system from our previous tutorial, fantastic, but if not, let’s get up and running with a quick and dirty script to define some destinations, a charger, an account balance and then use some of the balance to generate a CDR:

import cgrateshttpapi
import pprint
import uuid
import datetime
now = datetime.datetime.now()
CGRateS_Obj = cgrateshttpapi.CGRateS('localhost', 2080)

#Define Destinations
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":'cgrates.org',"ID":"Dest_AU_Mobile","Prefixes":["614"]}]})

#Load TariffPlan we just defined from StorDB to DataDB
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"APIerSv1.LoadTariffPlanFromStorDb","params":[{"TPid":'cgrates.org',"DryRun":False,"Validate":True,"APIOpts":None,"Caching":None}],"id":0})

#Define default Charger
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "APIerSv1.SetChargerProfile","params": [{"Tenant": "cgrates.org","ID": "DEFAULT",'FilterIDs': [],'AttributeIDs' : ['*none'],'Weight': 0,}]}))

account = "Nick_Test_123"

#Add a balance to the account with type *sms with 100 sms events
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV1.SetBalance","params": [{"Tenant": "cgrates.org","Account": account,"BalanceType": "*sms","DestinationIDs": 'Dest_NZ_Mobile;Dest_AU_Mobile',"Categories": "*any","Balance": {"ID": "100_SMS_Bundle_AU_NZ_Mobile","Value": 100,"Weight": 25}}]}))

#Process CDR Event for a single SMS
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR","params": [{"OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),"ToR": "*sms","RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid","AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),"SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),"Tenant": "cgrates.org","Account": account,"Destination" : "61412345678","Usage": "1",}]}))

Right, with that out of the way, we should now have something in our CDRs table, a quick SQL query confirms this is the case:

Bingo, there we go.

So let’s try an offline export via the API:

result = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({
	"method": "APIerSv1.ExportCDRs",
	"params": [
		{
			"ExporterIDs": [
				"CSVExporter"
			],
			"Verbose": True,
			"Accounts": [account
			]
		}
	]
})
pprint.pprint(result)

So, as you may have guessed, we’ve called the ExportCDRs API endpoint, we’ve specified which ExporterIDs we want to reference (these link back to the objects in the config, and the one we have defined currently is named CSVExporter).

Setting Verbose: True means that CGrateS gives us back a lot of info from the API call, here’s what we get back:

{"error": None,
 "id": None,
 "result": {"CSVExporter": {"ExportPath": "/tmp/testCSV/CSVExporter_21e9bc2.csv",
                            "FirstEventATime": "2024-01-02T18: 09: 29+11: 00",
                            "FirstExpOrderID": 14,
                            "LastEventATime": "2024-01-02T18: 40: 53+11: 00",
                            "LastExpOrderID": 25,
                            "NegativeExports": [],
                            "NumberOfEvents": 12,
                            "PositiveExports": ["f45dd29",
                                                ...
                                                "6163255"
            ],
                            "TimeNow": "2024-01-02T18: 40: 53.791517662+11: 00",
                            "TotalCost": 0,
                            "TotalSMSUsage": 12
        }
    }
}

Now that looks pretty positive, we got 12 events of SMS usage exported, which we can see in the file /tmp/testCSV/CSVExporter_21e9bc2.csv – and if we cat out the file, yeap, there’s all the CDRs.

But it’s a bit of a mess, there’s a lot of fields in there, so let’s adjust what goes into the CSV.

Let’s start by filtering what goes into the exporter, to only give us SMS events, of course you could adjust the filters here to target exporting only the records you want, based on anything you can define with Filters (and there’s a lot you can define with filters).

	"ees": {
		"enabled": true,
		"exporters": [
			{
				"id": "CSVExporter",
				"type": "*file_csv",
				"export_path": "/tmp/testCSV",
				"flags": ["*log"],
				"attempts": 1,
				"filters": ["*string:~*req.ToR:*sms"],
				"synchronous": true,
				"field_separator": ",",
				...

Now we’re only exporting SMS records, so let’s clean up the output of the CSV to just give us the data we want, which is the CDR ID, time, account, destination and usage.

	"ees": {
		"enabled": true,
		"exporters": [
			{
				"id": "CSVExporter",
				"type": "*file_csv",
				"export_path": "/tmp/testCSV",
				"flags": ["*log"],
				"attempts": 1,
				"filters": ["*string:~*req.ToR:*sms"],
				"synchronous": true,
				"field_separator": ",",
				"fields":[
					//Headers
					{"tag": "CGRID", "path": "*hdr.CGRID", "type": "*constant", "value": "CGRID"},
					{"tag": "AnswerTime", "path": "*hdr.AnswerTime", "type": "*constant", "value": "AnswerTime"},
					{"tag": "Account", "path": "*hdr.Account", "type": "*constant", "value": "Account"},
					{"tag": "Destination", "path": "*hdr.Destination", "type": "*constant", "value": "Destination"},
					{"tag": "Usage", "path": "*hdr.Usage", "type": "*constant", "value": "Usage"},
					//Values
					{"tag": "CGRID", "path": "*exp.CGRID", "type": "*variable", "value": "~*req.CGRID"},
					{"tag": "AnswerTime", "path": "*exp.AnswerTime", "type": "*variable", "value": "~*req.AnswerTime{*time_string:2006-01-02T15:04:05Z}"},
					{"tag": "Account", "path": "*exp.Account", "type": "*variable", "value": "~*req.Account"},
					{"tag": "Destination", "path": "*exp.Destination", "type": "*variable", "value": "~*req.Destination"},
					{"tag": "Usage", "path": "*exp.Usage", "type": "*variable", "value": "~*req.Usage"},

				],
			},
...

Now after a restart of CGrateS, our exports look like this:

Stunning, truly beautiful, look at that output!

Right, well you may at this point have noticed a problem if you’ve run this more than once. The problem is that is every time we run this, we get all the CDRs since the beginning of time.

Now there’s a few ways we can handle this, if we only want CDRs generated in the past day for example, we can filter that as an input on the ExportCDRs API call, using the multitude of filters available to us as documented in the API docs.

But where filtering by date/time falls down, is that if an offline CDR of a call on Monday, only got ingested on Tuesday, it would be missed by the export.

But, setting Verbose: True on the ExportCDRs API call gives us a handy trick, we’ve been told what the highest ID in the CDRs table we just exported in the response from the API in LastExpOrderID field.

If we jump over to the SQL database we use for StorDB, we can see that 33 is the ID of the highest CDR in the system.

So let’s try something, let’s run the exporter again, but this time let’s get all the CDRs where the ID is higher than 33:

#Process CDR Event for a single SMS
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR","params": [{"OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),"ToR": "*sms","RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid","AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),"SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),"Tenant": "cgrates.org","Account": account,"Destination" : "61412345678","Usage": "1",}]}))

#Trigger export where the OrderID is above 33
result = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"APIerSv1.ExportCDRs","params":[
    {"ExporterIDs": ["CSVExporter"],
     "Verbose" : True,
     "ExtraArgs" : {
        "OrderIDStart" : int(33),
     },
     "Accounts" : [account]}
]})
pprint.pprint(result)

Boom, now if we have a look at the output we can see the export covered two records, and the last ID was 35.

{'method': 'APIerSv1.ExportCDRs', 'params': [{'ExporterIDs': ['CSVExporter'], 'Verbose': True, 'ExtraArgs': {'OrderIDStart': 33}, 'run_id': 'carrier_interconnect', 'Accounts': ['Nick_Test_123']}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'CSVExporter': {'ExportPath': '/tmp/testCSV/CSVExporter_c444cd9.csv',
                            'FirstEventATime': '2024-01-02T19:19:59+11:00',
                            'FirstExpOrderID': 34,
                            'LastEventATime': '2024-01-02T19:20:08+11:00',
                            'LastExpOrderID': 35,
                            'NegativeExports': [],
                            'NumberOfEvents': 2,
                            'PositiveExports': ['034aba2', '22e4fa7'],
                            'TimeNow': '2024-01-02T19:20:08.355664133+11:00',
                            'TotalCost': 0,
                            'TotalSMSUsage': 2}}}

So as long as we keep track of the LastExpOrderID value, and feed that as in input every time we run ExportCDRs, we can ensure we never miss a CDR, and never get the same CDR twice.

How do you know if they’re roaming? Charging challenges in IMS for Roamers

I got an email the other day asking a simple question:

How do I know if a subscriber is VoLTE roaming or not when they send an SMS to charge for it?

My immediate reaction was to look at the SIP headers, P-Access-Network-Info will tell you where the subscriber is located, end of.

Right?

Well not quite, this will tell the SMSc the location of the subscriber sending the SMS. If the PLMN in the P-Access-Network-Info != the home PLMN, the sub is roaming.

But does this information get passed to the OCS / OFCS?

The SMSc uses “Event based charging” to perform credit control, so let’s have a look at what AVPs are present in the Credit Control Request from the SMSc:

Hmm, the SMS-Information AVP (2000) contains a bunch of information about the SMS being sent, but I don’t see anything about the location of the sender in there.

Originator-Interface is just set to “SIP”, of course in a 2G/3G roaming scenario the Originator-SCCP-Address would be that of the Visited PLMN, but for us it is our SCCP address.

Maybe the standard allows for an additional optional AVP in the SMS-Information-AVP we’re missing? Let’s check TS 32.299:

Nope.

So how to deal with this?

While the standards aren’t totally clear on this, we added an IMS-Info AVP and inside that populated the Access-Network-Information directly from the SIP header, and then picked that off inside our OCS in order to apply the correct rules.

CGrateS – AttributeS

The docs describe AttributeS as a Key-Value-Store, but that’s probably selling it short – You can do some really cool stuff with AttributeS, and in this post, we’re going to learn about using AttributeS to transform stuff.

Note: Before we get started, I’d suggest copying this config file to use for testing.

Let’s look at a really basic example, where we add some data into AttributeS, match based on Account in CGrateS, and get back that data.

Let’s look at how this would look on the API:

{
    "method": "APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile",
    "params": [{
        "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
        "ID": "ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example",
        "Contexts": ["*any"],
        "FilterIDs": [
            "*string:~*req.Account:1234"
        ],
        "Attributes": [
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.ExampleKey",
            "Type": "*constant",
            "Value": "ExampleValue"
            }
        ],
        "Blocker": False,
        "Weight": 10

    }],
}

So what are we doing in this API call?

Well, for starters we’re calling the SetAttributeProfile endpoint, this is where we go to create / update Attribute Profiles, but in this case, because we’re hitting it for the first time with this ID, we’re creating a new entry called “ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example“, this will match any Contexts (more on them later) where the FilterIDs is a string, where the request Account, is equal to 1234.

Let’s run this against the CGrateS API and take a look at the result:

import cgrateshttpapi
import pprint

CGRateS_Obj = cgrateshttpapi.CGRateS('localhost', 2080)

SetAttributeProfile = {
    "method": "APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile",
    "params": [{
        "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
        "ID": "ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example",
        "Contexts": ["*any"],
        "FilterIDs": [
            "*string:~*req.Account:1234"
        ],
        "Attributes": [
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.ExampleKey",
            "Type": "*constant",
            "Value": "ExampleValue"
            }
        ],
        "Blocker": False,
        "Weight": 10
    }],
}
result = CGRateS_Obj.SendData(SetAttributeProfile)
pprint.pprint(result)

result = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent",
                               "params":[
                                   {"Tenant":"cgrates.org",
                                    "Event":{"Account":"1234"},"APIOpts":{}}]})
pprint.pprint(result)

All going well you should have got the following back:

{'method': 'AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Event': {'Account': '1234'}, 'APIOpts': {}}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'APIOpts': {},
            'AlteredFields': ['*req.ExampleKey'],
            'Event': {'Account': '1234', 'ExampleKey': 'ExampleValue'},
            'ID': '',
            'MatchedProfiles': ['cgrates.org:ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example'],
            'Tenant': 'cgrates.org',
            'Time': None}}

This tells us we matched the Attribute with the ID ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example, and inside Event we can see that ExampleKey was added with value ExampleValue.

Okay, you’re saying, well what was the point of that?

Well, what if as a key in the attributes, we had the password for the SIP account, which we passed to our SIP switch (Kamailio, FreeSWITCH or Asterisk for example), and used that to authenticate?

Let’s see how that would look:

{
    "method": "APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile",
    "params": [{
        "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
        "ID": "ATTR_Nick_Password_Example",
        "Contexts": ["*any"],
        "FilterIDs": [
            "*string:~*req.Account:1234"
        ],
        "Attributes": [
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.SIP_password",
            "Type": "*constant",
            "Value": "sosecretiputitonthewebsite"
            }
        ],
        "Blocker": False,
        "Weight": 10
    }],
}

Now if the CGrateS Agent for your SIP Switch, includes the *attributes flag, and the call is coming from 1234, we’ll get back a key called “SIP_password” with the value “sosecretiputitonthewebsite”, which you can use to auth the SIP account.

We can also return multiple AttributeS, for example, we created two Attributes (ATTR_Nick_Password_Example and ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example) which match on the account 1234. This means we’ll get back the SIP Password from ATTR_Nick_Password_Example and the key:value we set in ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example:

{'method': 'AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Event': {'Account': '1234'}}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'APIOpts': {},
            'AlteredFields': ['*req.SIP_password', '*req.ExampleKey'],
            'Event': {'Account': '1234',
                      'ExampleKey': 'ExampleValue',
                      'SIP_password': 'sosecretiputitonthewebsite'},
            'ID': '',
            'MatchedProfiles': ['cgrates.org:ATTR_Nick_Password_Example',
                                'cgrates.org:ATTR_Nick_Key_Value_Example'],
            'Tenant': 'cgrates.org',
            'Time': None}}

The order can be controlled by the Weight flag in the attribute, and if you want to stop matching any other AttributeS rules after the current Attribute, you can set the Blocker=True flag when you create/update the Attribute.

Okay, I hear you saying, that’s all well and good, I can add arbitrary key/values to stuff. Here endeth the lesson right?

Well not quite, because we can add key/values, but we can also rewrite variables using AttributeS.

Let’s imagine we’ve got 3 phone numbers (DIDs) associated with an account inside CGrateS, for example’s sake let’s say we have 12340001, 12340002 and 12340003, and we want any calls from these numbers to be billed to a CGrateS account called “NickTest1234”.

Our SIP switch doesn’t need to know anything about “NickTest1234”, just the 3 DIDs it can use to call out from your SIP stack. But to do this, we’d need CGrateS to transform any events from these DIDs to replace the Account value inside CGrateS, with NickTest1234.

Let’s see how that would look:

{'method': 'APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'ID': 'ATTR_Calling_NickTest1234_12340001', 'Contexts': ['*any'], 'FilterIDs': ['*string:~*req.Account:12340001'], 'Attributes': [{'Path': '*req.Account', 'Type': '*constant', 'Value': 'NickTest1234'}], 'Weight': 0}], 'id': 1}

{'method': 'APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'ID': 'ATTR_Calling_NickTest1234_12340002', 'Contexts': ['*any'], 'FilterIDs': ['*string:~*req.Account:12340002'], 'Attributes': [{'Path': '*req.Account', 'Type': '*constant', 'Value': 'NickTest1234'}], 'Weight': 0}], 'id': 2}

{'method': 'APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'ID': 'ATTR_Calling_NickTest1234_12340003', 'Contexts': ['*any'], 'FilterIDs': ['*string:~*req.Account:12340003'], 'Attributes': [{'Path': '*req.Account', 'Type': '*constant', 'Value': 'NickTest1234'}], 'Weight': 0}], 'id': 3}

In the example code to go with this I’ve put together a simple for loop to add these – You can find the code on Github (link at the bottom).

So with these defined, let’s try and rate something, we’ll add a default Charger, and add an SMS balance, before simulating an SMS where the account is set to 12340003:

#Define default Charger
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"APIerSv1.SetChargerProfile","params":[{"Tenant":"cgrates.org","ID":"DEFAULT","FilterIDs":[],"AttributeIDs":["*none"],"Weight":0}]}))

#Add an SMS Balance
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"ApierV1.SetBalance","params":[{"Tenant":"cgrates.org","Account":"Nick_Test_123","BalanceType":"*sms","Categories":"*any","Balance":{"ID":"SMS_Balance_1","Value":"100","Weight":25}}],"id":13}))

import uuid
import datetime
now = datetime.datetime.now()
result = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({
    "method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR",
    "params": [
        {
            "OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),
            "ToR": "*sms",
            "RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid",
            "AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            #This is going to be transformed to Nick_Test_123 by Attributes
            "Account": "12340003",
            "Usage": "1",
        }
    ]
})
pprint.pprint(result)

Right, so all going well, here’s what you should see in the CDRs table:

Bing, despite the fact the Account in the ProcessExternalCDR was set to 12340003, and had no mention of “NickTest1234”, CGrateS transformed it to NickTest1234.

How did that happen? Well, inside our cgrates.json file we have set the cdrs and chargers modules to have a link to Attributes, which means that when we call CDRs or Chargers modules via the API, these will in turn bounce the data through AttributesS for any transformations.

This means we don’t need to run AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent ourselves, when we call CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR, the CDRs module will call AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent for us.

We can actually see this happening, using ngrep, which as you work more with CGrateS, is a tool you’ll get very familiar with, let’s take a peek:

sudo ngrep -t -W byline port 2012 -d lo

Now if we run the CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR again, we’ll see the CDRs module has called Attributes for us:

Boom, there it is, same as we ran, but it’s being handled by CGrateS for us.

If you look carefully you’ll see the context in the API request is set to “*cdrs”, this means the CDRs module is calling Attributes.

When we define each of our Attributes, as we did earlier in the post, we can set what contexts they are valid in, for example we may want to apply the transformation when called by CDRs, but not other modules, you can restrict that when you define the Attribute by setting “Contexts”: [“*cdrs”].

Okay, so we’ve done some account replacement, what else can we do?

Well, let’s look at some other use cases,

Here in Australia we’ve got a few valid dialing formats, you could dial E.164 format (Numbers look like: +61212341234), 0NSN format (Numbers look like: 02 1234 1234) or NSN format (Numbers look like: 1234 1234 assuming you’re in the 03 area code yourself).
If we want to define all our Destinations in E.164 format, we’ll need to to normalise the format using AttributeS, so the numbers always come as E.164.

Let’s give it a whirl with a static translation:

{
    "method": "APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile",
    "params": [{
        "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
        "ID": "ATTR_0NSN_to_E164_Single",
        "Contexts": ["*any"],
        "FilterIDs": [
            "*string:~*req.Subject:0212341234"
        ],
        "Attributes": [
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.Subject",
            "Type": "*constant",
            "Value": "61212341234"
            }
        ],
        "Blocker": False,
        "Weight": 10
    }],
}

Now this will work, if we simulate an Event to AttributeS with the Subject 0212341234, it’ll get transformed by AttributeS to 61212341234.

The issue here is probably pretty obvious, the only matches one number, if we dial 0212341235 this all falls apart.

Enter our old friend Regex.

For starters, we’ll change the FilterIDs to match where the Account is NickTest7, this way we can set the rules on a per CGrateS account basis.

{
    "method": "APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile",
    "params": [{
        "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
        "ID": "ATTR_0NSN_to_E164_02_Area_Code",
        "Contexts": ["*any"],
        "FilterIDs": [
            "*string:~*req.Account:NickTest7"
        ],
        "Attributes": [
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.Subject",
            "Type": "*variable",
            "Value": "~*req.Subject:s/^0(\d{1})(\d{8})$/61${1}${2}/"
            },
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.Subject",
            "Type": "*variable",
            "Value": "~*req.Subject:s/^(\d{8})$/612${1}/"
            },
        ],
        "Blocker": False,
        "Weight": 10
    }],
}

And then under AttributeS we’ve defined a rule to replace anything matching the 0NSN regex, to strip the first digit and append a 61, to put it in E.164 format, and in SN format as the second entry.

We can now test this out:

{'method': 'AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Event': {'Account': 'NickTest7', 'Subject': '0312341234'}, 'APIOpts': {'*processRuns': 5, '*profileRuns': 5, '*subsys': '*sessions'}}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'APIOpts': {'*processRuns': 5,
                        '*profileRuns': 5,
                        '*subsys': '*sessions'},
            'AlteredFields': ['*req.Subject'],
            'Event': {'Account': 'NickTest7', 'Subject': '61312341234'},
            'ID': '',
            'MatchedProfiles': ['cgrates.org:ATTR_0NSN_to_E164_02_Area_Code'],
            'Tenant': 'cgrates.org',
            'Time': None}}



{'method': 'AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Event': {'Account': 'NickTest7', 'Subject': '12341234'}, 'APIOpts': {'*processRuns': 5, '*profileRuns': 5, '*subsys': '*sessions'}}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'APIOpts': {'*processRuns': 5,
                        '*profileRuns': 5,
                        '*subsys': '*sessions'},
            'AlteredFields': ['*req.Subject'],
            'Event': {'Account': 'NickTest7', 'Subject': '61212341234'},
            'ID': '',
            'MatchedProfiles': ['cgrates.org:ATTR_0NSN_to_E164_02_Area_Code'],
            'Tenant': 'cgrates.org',
            'Time': None}}

And there you have it folks; our number format standardized.

We can combo / cascade AttributeS rules together, with the aid of the Weight and Blocker flags in the API.

Let’s imagine the 61212341234 number has been ported from Operator1 to Operator2, and the Destinations we’ve defined in CGrateS for this prefix are currently set to DST_Operator1.
But because this number has been ported we should use DST_Operator2, so we charge the Operator2, as this number has been ported.

This means we don’t need to duplicate destination definitions to show this number has been ported, as this will be updated as the call gets rated, so we just assign the Attribute to each ported number.

So let’s match where the Subject of the call is 61212341234 (even though we’re going to input the Subject as 12341234), and rewrite the Destination attribute to DST_Operator2:

{
    "method": "APIerSv2.SetAttributeProfile",
    "params": [{
        "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
        "ID": "ATTR_Ported_61212341234",
        "Contexts": ["*any"],
        "FilterIDs": [
            "*string:~*req.Subject:61212341234",
        ],
        "Attributes": [
            {
            "FilterIDs": [],
            "Path": "*req.Destination",
            "Type": "*constant",
            "Value": "DST_Operator2"
            },
        ],
        "Blocker": False,
        "Weight": 5
    }],
}

From the results we can see we matched two AttributeS rules, the first, ATTR_0NSN_to_E164_02_Area_Code reformatted the Subject of the call from 12341234 to 61212341234, then the updated Subject was passed through to ATTR_Ported_61212341234, which updated the Destination attribute to DST_Operator2.

{'method': 'AttributeSv1.ProcessEvent', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Event': {'Account': 'NickTest7', 'Subject': '12341234'}, 'APIOpts': {'*processRuns': 5, '*profileRuns': 5, '*subsys': '*sessions'}}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'APIOpts': {'*processRuns': 5,
                        '*profileRuns': 5,
                        '*subsys': '*sessions'},
            'AlteredFields': ['*req.Subject', '*req.Destination'],
            'Event': {'Account': 'NickTest7',
                      'Destination': 'DST_Operator2',
                      'Subject': '61212341234'},
            'ID': '',
            'MatchedProfiles': ['cgrates.org:ATTR_0NSN_to_E164_02_Area_Code',
                                'cgrates.org:ATTR_Ported_61212341234'],
            'Tenant': 'cgrates.org',
            'Time': None}}

Hopefully this has helped you to dip a toe into the CGrateS AttributeS pool, and give you some ideas of what we can achieve inside AttributeS.

A complete working code & config is available on my Github here.

If you’re having issues, make sure you have loaded the config file, are running the latest version, and if in doubt (and not on a production system), this script will clear all the data for you so you can rule out anything interfering.

CGrateS – ActionTriggers

In our last post we looked at Actions and ActionPlans, and one of the really funky things we can do is setting ActionPlans to trigger on a time schedule or setting ActionTriggers to trigger on an event.

We’re going to build on the examples we had on the last post, so we’ll assume your code is up to the point where we’ve added a Signup Bonus to an account, using an ActionPlan we assigned when creating the account.

In this post, we’re going to create an action that charges $6, called “Action_Monthly_Charge“, and tie it to an ActionPlan called “ActionPlan_Monthly_Charge“, but to demo how this works rather than charging this Monthly, we’re going to charge it every minute.

Then with our balances ticking down, we’ll set up an ActionTrigger to trigger when the balance drops below $95, and alert us.

Defining the Monthly Charge Action

The Action for the Monthly charge will look much like the other actions we’ve defined, except the Identifier is *debit so we know we’re deducting from the balance, and we’ll log to the CDRs table too:

# Action to add a Monthly charge of $6
Action_Monthly_Charge = {
    "id": "0",
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActions",
    "params": [
        {
          "ActionsId": "Action_Monthly_Charge",
          "Actions": [
              {
                'Identifier': '*debit',
                'BalanceType': '*monetary',
               'Units': 6,
               'Id': 'Action_Monthly_Charge_Debit',
               'Weight': 70},
              {
                  "Identifier": "*log",
                  "Weight": 60,
                  'Id' : "Action_Monthly_Charge_Log"
              },
              {
                  "Identifier": "*cdrlog",
                  "BalanceId": "",
                  "BalanceUuid": "",
                  "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                  "Directions": "*out",
                  "Units": 0,
                  "ExpiryTime": "",
                  "Filter": "",
                  "TimingTags": "",
                  "DestinationIds": "",
                  "RatingSubject": "",
                  "Categories": "",
                  "SharedGroups": "",
                  "BalanceWeight": 0,
                  "ExtraParameters": "{\"Category\":\"^activation\",\"Destination\":\"Recurring Charge\"}",
                  "BalanceBlocker": "false",
                  "BalanceDisabled": "false",
                  "Weight": 80
              },
          ]}]}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Action_Monthly_Charge))

Next we’ll need to wrap this up into an ActionPlan, this is where some of the magic happens. Inside the action plan we can set a once off time, or a recurring time, kinda like Cron.

We’re setting the time to *every_minute so things will happen quickly while we watch, this action will get triggered every 60 seconds. In real life of course, for a Monthly charge, we’d want to trigger this Action monthly, so we’d set this value to *monthly. If we wanted this to charge on the 2nd of the month we’d set the MonthDays to “2”, etc, etc.

# # Create ActionPlan using SetActionPlan to trigger the Action_Monthly_Charge
SetActionPlan_Daily_Action_Monthly_Charge_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActionPlan",
    "params": [{
        "Id": "ActionPlan_Monthly_Charge",
        "ActionPlan": [{
            "ActionsId": "Action_Monthly_Charge",
            "Years": "*any",
            "Months": "*any",
            "MonthDays": "*any",
            "WeekDays": "*any",
            "Time": "*every_minute",
            "Weight": 10
        }],
        "Overwrite": True,
        "ReloadScheduler": True
    }]
}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(
    SetActionPlan_Daily_Action_Monthly_Charge_JSON))

Alright, but now what’s going to happen?

If you think the accounts will start getting debited every 60 seconds after applying this, you’d be wrong, we need to associate this ActionPlan with an Account first, this is how we control which accounts get which ActionPlans tied to them, to do this we’ll use the SetAccout API again we’ve been using to create accounts:

# Create the Account object inside CGrateS & assign ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus and ActionPlan_Monthly_Charge
Create_Account_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV2.SetAccount",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": str(Account),
            "ActionPlanIds": ["ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus", "ActionPlan_Monthly_Charge"],
            "ActionPlansOverwrite": True,
            "ReloadScheduler":True
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Account_JSON))

So what’s going to happen if we run this?

Well, for starters the ActionPlan named “ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus” is going to be triggered, as in the ActionPlan it’s Timing is set to *asap, so CGrateS will apply the corresponding Action (“Action_Add_Signup_Bonus“) right away, which will credit the account $99.

But a minute after that, we’ll trigger the ActionPlan named “ActionPlan_Monthly_Charge”, as the timing for this is set to *every_minute, when the Action “Action_Monthly_Charge” is triggered, it’s going to be deducting $6 from the balance.

We can check this by using the GetAccount API:

# Get Account Info
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [
              {"Tenant": "cgrates.org", "Account": str(Account)}]}))

You should see a balance of $99 to start with, and then after 60 seconds, it should be down to $93, and so on.

{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'ActionTriggers': None,
            'AllowNegative': False,
            'BalanceMap': {'*monetary': [{'Blocker': False,
                                          'Categories': {},
                                          'DestinationIDs': {},
                                          'Disabled': False,
                                          'ExpirationDate': '2023-11-17T14:57:20.71493633+11:00',
                                          'Factor': None,
                                          'ID': 'Balance_Signup_Bonus',
                                          'RatingSubject': '',
                                          'SharedGroups': {},
                                          'TimingIDs': {},
                                          'Timings': None,
                                          'Uuid': '3a896369-8107-4e32-bcef-2d078c981b8a',
                                          'Value': 99,
                                          'Weight': 1200}]},
            'Disabled': False,
            'ID': 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123',
            'UnitCounters': None,
            'UpdateTime': '2023-10-17T14:57:21.802521707+11:00'}}

Triggering Actions based on Balances with ActionTriggers

Okay, so we’ve set up recurring charges, now let’s get notified if the balance drops below $95, we’ll start, like we have before, with defining an Action, this will log to the CDRs table, HTTP post and write to syslog:


#Define a new Action to send an HTTP POST
Action_HTTP_Notify_95 = {
    "id": "0",
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActions",
    "params": [
        {
          "ActionsId": "Action_HTTP_Notify_95",
          "Actions": [
              {
                  "Identifier": "*cdrlog",
                  "BalanceId": "",
                  "BalanceUuid": "",
                  "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                  "Directions": "*out",
                  "Units": 0,
                  "ExpiryTime": "",
                  "Filter": "",
                  "TimingTags": "",
                  "DestinationIds": "",
                  "RatingSubject": "",
                  "Categories": "",
                  "SharedGroups": "",
                  "BalanceWeight": 0,
                  "ExtraParameters": "{\"Category\":\"^activation\",\"Destination\":\"Balance dipped below $95\"}",
                  "BalanceBlocker": "false",
                  "BalanceDisabled": "false",
                  "Weight": 80
              },
              {
                  "Identifier": "*http_post_async",
                  "ExtraParameters": "http://10.177.2.135/95_remaining",
                  "ExpiryTime": "*unlimited",
                  "Weight": 700
              },
              {
                  "Identifier": "*log",
                  "Weight": 1200
              }
          ]}]}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Action_HTTP_Notify_95))

Now we’ll define an ActionTrigger to check if the balance is below $95 and trigger our newly created Action (“Action_HTTP_Notify_95“) when that condition is met:


#Define ActionTrigger
ActionTrigger_95_Remaining_JSON = {
    "method": "APIerSv1.SetActionTrigger",
    "params": [
        {
            "GroupID" : "ActionTrigger_95_Remaining",
            "ActionTrigger": 
                {
                    "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                    "Balance" : {
                        'BalanceType': '*monetary',
                        'ID' : "*default",
                        'BalanceID' : "*default",
                        'Value' : 95,
                        },
                    "ThresholdType": "*min_balance",
                    "ThresholdValue": 95,
                    "Weight": 10,
                    "ActionsID" : "Action_HTTP_Notify_95",
                },
            "Overwrite": True
        }
    ]
}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(ActionTrigger_95_Remaining_JSON))

We’ve defined the ThresholdType of *min_balance, but we could equally set this to ThresholdType to *max_balance, *balance_expired or trigger when a certain Counter has been triggered enough times.

Adding an ActionTrigger to an Account

Again, like the ActionPlan we created before, before the ActionTrigger we just created will be used, we need to associate it with an Account, for this we’ll use the AddAccountActionTriggers API, specify the Account and the ActionTriggerID for the ActionTrigger we just created.


#Add ActionTrigger to Account 
Add_ActionTrigger_to_Account_JSON = {
    "method": "APIerSv1.AddAccountActionTriggers",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": str(Account),
            "ActionTriggerIDs": ["ActionTrigger_95_Remaining"],
            "ActionTriggersOverwrite": True
        }
    ]
}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Add_ActionTrigger_to_Account_JSON))

If we run this all together, creating the account with the “ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus” will give the account a $99 Balance. But after 60 seconds, “ActionPlan_Monthly_Charge” will kick in, and every 60 seconds after that, at which point the balance will get to below $95 when CGrateS will trigger the ActionTriggerActionTrigger_95_Remaining” and get the HTTP POST to the HTTP endpoint and log entry:

We can check on this using the ApierV2.GetAccount method, where we’ll see the ActionTrigger we just defined.

Checking out the LastExecutionTime we can see if the ActionTrigger been triggered or not.

So using this technique, we can notify a customer when they’ve used a certain amount of their balance, but we can lock out Accounts who have spent more than their allocated spend limit by setting an Action that suspends the Account once it reaches a certain level. We notify customers when balance expires, or if a certain number of counters has been triggered.

As always I’ve put all the code used in this example, from start to finish, up on GitHub.

CGrateS – Actions & Action Plans

In our last post we added a series of different balances to an account, these were actions we took via the API specifically to add a balance.

But there’s a lot more actions we may want to do beyond just adding balance.

CGrateS has the concept of “Actions” which are, as the name suggests, things we want to do to the system.

Some example Actions would be:

  • Adding / Deducting / Resetting a balance
  • Adding a CDR log
  • Enable/Disable an account
  • Sending HTTP POST request or email notification
  • Deleting / suspending account
  • Transferring balances

We can run these actions on a timed basis, or when an event is triggered, and group Actions together to run multiple actions via an ActionTrigger, this means we can trigger these Actions, not just by sending an API request, but based on the state of the subscriber / account.

Let’s look at some examples,

We can define an Action named “Action_Monthly_Fee” to debit $12 from the monetary balance of an account, and add a CDR with the name “Monthly Account Fee” when it does so.
We can use ActionTriggers to run this every month on the account automatically.

We can define an Action named “Usage_Warning_10GB” to send an email to the Account owner to inform them they’ve used 10GB of usage, and use ActionTriggers to send this when the customer has used 10GB of their *data balance.

Using Actions

Note: The Python script I’ve used with all the examples in this post is available on GitHub here.

Let’s start by defining an Account, just as we have before:

# Create the Account object inside CGrateS
Account = "Nick_Test_123"
Create_Account_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV2.SetAccount",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": str(Account)
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Account_JSON))

Let’s start basic; to sweeten the deal for new Accounts, we’ll give them $99 of balance to use in the first month they have the service. Rather than hitting the AddBalance API, we’ll define an Action named “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus” to credit $99 of monetary balance to an account.

If you go back to our last post, you should know what we’d need to do to add this balance manually with the AddBalance API, but let’s look at how we can create the same balance add functionality using Actions:

#Add a Signup Bonus of $99 to the account with type *monetary expiring a month after it's added
Action_Signup_Bonus = {
    "id": "0",
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActions",
    "params": [
        {
          "ActionsId": "Action_Add_Signup_Bonus",
          "Actions": [
              {
                  "Identifier": "*topup",
                  "BalanceId": "Balance_Signup_Bonus",
                  "BalanceUuid": "",
                  "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                  "Directions": "*out",
                  "Units": 99,
                  "ExpiryTime": "*month",
                  "Filter": "",
                  "TimingTags": "",
                  "DestinationIds": "",
                  "RatingSubject": "",
                  "Categories": "",
                  "SharedGroups": "",
                  "BalanceWeight": 1200,
                  "ExtraParameters": "",
                  "BalanceBlocker": "false",
                  "BalanceDisabled": "false",
                  "Weight": 10
              }
]}]}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Action_Signup_Bonus))

Alright, this should look pretty familiar if you’ve just come from Account Balances.
You’ll notice we’re no longer calling, SetBalance, we’re now calling SetActions, to create the ActionsId with the name “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus“.
In “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus” we’ve got an actions we’ll do when “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus” is called.
We can define multiple actions, but for now we’ve only got one action defined, which has the Identifier (which defines what the action does) set to *topup to add balance.
As you probably guessed, we’re triggering a top up, and setting the BalanceId, BalanceType, Units, ExpiryTime and BalanceWeight just as we would using SetBalance to add a balance.

So how do we use the Action we just created? Well, there’s a lot of options, but let’s start with the most basic – Via the API:

# Trigger ExecuteAction
Account_Action_trigger_JSON = {"method": "APIerSv1.ExecuteAction", "params": [
    {"Tenant": "cgrates.org", "Account": str(Account), "ActionsId": "Action_Add_Signup_Bonus"}]}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Account_Action_trigger_JSON))

Boom, we’ve called the ExecuteAction API call, to execute the Action named “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus“.

We can check on this with GetAccount again and check the results:

# Get Account Info
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [
              {"Tenant": "cgrates.org", "Account": str(Account)}]}))
{'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': 'Nick_Test_123'}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'ActionTriggers': None,
            'AllowNegative': False,
            'BalanceMap': {'*monetary': [{'Blocker': False,
                                          'Categories': {},
                                          'DestinationIDs': {},
                                          'Disabled': False,
                                          'ExpirationDate': '2023-11-15T10:27:52.865119544+11:00',
                                          'Factor': None,
                                          'ID': 'Balance_Signup_Bonus',
                                          'RatingSubject': '',
                                          'SharedGroups': {},
                                          'TimingIDs': {},
                                          'Timings': None,
                                          'Uuid': '01cfb471-ba38-453a-b0e2-8ddb397dfe9c',
                                          'Value': 99,
                                          'Weight': 1200}]},
            'Disabled': False,
            'ID': 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123',
            'UnitCounters': None,
            'UpdateTime': '2023-10-15T10:27:52.865144268+11:00'}}

Great start!

Making Actions Useful

Well congratulations, we took something we previously did with one API call (SetBalance), and we did it with two (SetAction and ExcecuteAction)!

But let’s start paying efficiency dividends,

When we add a balance, let’s also add a CDR log event so we’ll know the account was credited with the balance when we call the GetCDRs API call.

We’d just modify our SetActions to include an extra step:

Action_Signup_Bonus = {
    "id": "0",
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActions",
    "params": [
        {
          "ActionsId": "Action_Add_Signup_Bonus",
          "Actions": [
              {
                  "Identifier": "*topup",
                  "BalanceId": "Balance_Signup_Bonus",
...
              }, 
              {
                  "Identifier": "*cdrlog",
                  "BalanceId": "",
                  "BalanceUuid": "",
                  "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                  "Directions": "*out",
                  "Units": 0,
                  "ExpiryTime": "",
                  "Filter": "",
                  "TimingTags": "",
                  "DestinationIds": "",
                  "RatingSubject": "",
                  "Categories": "",
                  "SharedGroups": "",
                  "BalanceWeight": 0,
                  "ExtraParameters": "{\"Category\":\"^activation\",\"Destination\":\"Your sign up Bonus\"}",
                  "BalanceBlocker": "false",
                  "BalanceDisabled": "false",
                  "Weight": 10
              }
]}]}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Action_Signup_Bonus))

Boom, now we’ll get a CDR created when the Action is triggered.

But let’s push this a bit more and add some more steps in the Action:

As well as adding balance and putting in a CDR to record what we did, let’s also send a notification to our customer via an HTTP API (BYO customer push notification system) and log to Syslog what’s going on.

# Add a Signup Bonus of $99 to the account with type *monetary expiring a month after it's added
Action_Signup_Bonus = {
    "id": "0",
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActions",
    "params": [
        {
          "ActionsId": "Action_Add_Signup_Bonus",
          "Actions": [
              {
                  "Identifier": "*topup",
                  "BalanceId": "Balance_Signup_Bonus",
                  "BalanceUuid": "",
                  "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                  "Directions": "*out",
                  "Units": 99,
                  "ExpiryTime": "*month",
                  "Filter": "",
                  "TimingTags": "",
                  "DestinationIds": "",
                  "RatingSubject": "",
                  "Categories": "",
                  "SharedGroups": "",
                  "BalanceWeight": 1200,
                  "ExtraParameters": "",
                  "BalanceBlocker": "false",
                  "BalanceDisabled": "false",
                  "Weight": 90
              },
              {
                  "Identifier": "*cdrlog",
                  "BalanceId": "",
                  "BalanceUuid": "",
                  "BalanceType": "*monetary",
                  "Directions": "*out",
                  "Units": 0,
                  "ExpiryTime": "",
                  "Filter": "",
                  "TimingTags": "",
                  "DestinationIds": "",
                  "RatingSubject": "",
                  "Categories": "",
                  "SharedGroups": "",
                  "BalanceWeight": 0,
                  "ExtraParameters": "{\"Category\":\"^activation\",\"Destination\":\"Your sign up Bonus\"}",
                  "BalanceBlocker": "false",
                  "BalanceDisabled": "false",
                  "Weight": 80
              },
              {
                  "Identifier": "*http_post_async",
                  "ExtraParameters": "http://10.177.2.135/example_endpoint",
                  "ExpiryTime": "*unlimited",
                  "Weight": 70
              },
              {
                  "Identifier": "*log",
                  "Weight": 60
              }
          ]}]}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Action_Signup_Bonus))

Phew! That’s a big action, but if we execute the action again using ExecuteAction, we’ll get all these things happening at once:

Okay, now we’re getting somewhere!

ActionPlans

Having an Action we can trigger manually via the API is one thing, but being able to trigger it automatically is where it really comes into its own.

Let’s define an ActionPlan, that is going to call our Action named “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus” as soon as the ActionPlan is assigned to an Account.

# Create ActionPlan using SetActionPlan to trigger the Action_Signup_Bonus ASAP
SetActionPlan_Signup_Bonus_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV1.SetActionPlan",
    "params": [{
        "Id": "ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus",
        "ActionPlan": [{
            "ActionsId": "Action_Add_Signup_Bonus",
            "Years": "*any",
            "Months": "*any",
            "MonthDays": "*any",
            "WeekDays": "*any",
            "Time": "*asap",
            "Weight": 10
        }],
        "Overwrite": True,
        "ReloadScheduler": True
    }]
}
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(SetActionPlan_Signup_Bonus_JSON))

So what have we done here? We’ve made an ActionPlan named “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus”, which, when associated with an account, will run the Action “Action_Add_Signup_Bonus” as soon as it’s tied to the account, thanks to the Time*asap“.

Now if we create or update an Account using the SetAccount method, we can set the ActionPlanIds to reference our “ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus” and it’ll be triggered straight away.

# Create the Account object inside CGrateS
Create_Account_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV2.SetAccount",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": str(Account),
            "ActionPlanIds": ["ActionPlan_Signup_Bonus"],
            "ActionPlansOverwrite": True,
            "ReloadScheduler":True
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Account_JSON))

Now if we were to run a GetAccount API call, we’ll see the Account balance assigned that was created by the action Action_Add_Signup_Bonus which was triggered by ActionPlan assigned to the account:

{'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': 'Nick_Test_123'}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'ActionTriggers': None,
            'AllowNegative': False,
            'BalanceMap': {'*monetary': [{'Blocker': False,
                                          'Categories': {},
                                          'DestinationIDs': {},
                                          'Disabled': False,
                                          'ExpirationDate': '2023-11-16T12:41:02.530985381+11:00',
                                          'Factor': None,
                                          'ID': 'Balance_Signup_Bonus',
                                          'RatingSubject': '',
                                          'SharedGroups': {},
                                          'TimingIDs': {},
                                          'Timings': None,
                                          'Uuid': '7bdbee5c-0888-4da2-b42f-5d6b8966ee2d',
                                          'Value': 99,
                                          'Weight': 1200}]},
            'Disabled': False,
            'ID': 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123',
            'UnitCounters': None,
            'UpdateTime': '2023-10-16T12:41:12.7236096+11:00'}}

But here’s where it gets interesting, in the ActionPlan we just defined the Time was set to “*asap“, which means the Action is triggered as soon as it was assigned to the account, but if we set the Time value to “*monthly“, the Action would get triggered every month, or *every_minute to trigger every minute, or *month_end to trigger at the end of every month.

Code for these examples is available here.

I’m trying to keep these posts shorter as there’s a lot to cover. Stick around for our next post, we’ll look at some more ActionTriggers to keep decreasing the balance of the account, and setting up ActionTriggers to send a notification to the customer to tell them when their balance is getting low, or any other event based Action you can think of!

CGrateS – Accounts & Balances

So far we’ve used CGrateS to rate a basic CDR and get a cost for it, but in the real world, we’d usually associate the cost with an account, which would represent a business or a person, who will ultimately be charged for using the service.

Note: I’ve put the code for all this in Github, if you’ve got issues following along, or don’t want to copy and paste the code from the website, you can grab the code here.

Creating an Account

Let’s start off by creating an account inside CGrateS – This is kinda pointless, but we’ll talk more about that later:

#Create the Account object inside CGrateS 
Create_Account_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV2.SetAccount",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123"
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Account_JSON))

Running this onto the API should create an account named “Nick_Test_123”, but let’s confirm that’s the case:

#Print the Account Information
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.GetAccount','params':[{"Tenant":"cgrates.org","Account": "Nick_Test_123"}]}))

Running this will give us the information about the account we just created:

{'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': 'Nick_Test_123'}]}
OrderedDict([('id', None),
             ('result',
              OrderedDict([('ID', 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123'),
                           ('BalanceMap', None),
                           ('UnitCounters', None),
                           ('ActionTriggers', None),
                           ('AllowNegative', False),
                           ('Disabled', False),
                           ('UpdateTime',
                            '2023-10-09T16:53:37.524466041+11:00')])),
             ('error', None)])

That was easy!

There’s not really much to see on our account at this stage, other than the UpdateTime, there’s nothing really going on, we don’t have any Balances.

Adding Balance for Voice

Accounts exist for spending, so let’s add a balance to this account to send from.

We’ll use the SetBalance API to create a new balance with 5 minutes of talk time, that we can use for making a call, and talking, for (you guessed it) – 5 minutes, so and we’ll use the balance “5_minute_voice_balance” that we’ll create:

#Add a balance to the account with type *voice with 5 minutes of Talk Time
Create_Voice_Balance_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV1.SetBalance",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "BalanceType": "*voice",
            "Categories": "*any",
            "Balance": {
                "ID": "5_minute_voice_balance",
                "Value": "5m",
                "Weight": 25
            }
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Voice_Balance_JSON))

Now if we run the GetAccount API command again, we should see the new balance we just created:

#Print the Account Information
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.GetAccount','params':[{"Tenant":"cgrates.org","Account": "Nick_Test_123"}]}))
{'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': 'Nick_Test_123'}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'ActionTriggers': None,
            'AllowNegative': False,
            'BalanceMap': {'*voice': [{'Blocker': False,
                                       'Categories': None,
                                       'DestinationIDs': None,
                                       'Disabled': False,
                                       'ExpirationDate': '0001-01-01T00:00:00Z',
                                       'Factor': None,
                                       'ID': '5_minute_voice_balance',
                                       'RatingSubject': '',
                                       'SharedGroups': None,
                                       'TimingIDs': None,
                                       'Timings': None,
                                       'Uuid': '37423d07-d99a-40b1-851a-981c3df02cb3',
                                       'Value': 300000000000,
                                       'Weight': 25}]},
            'Disabled': False,
            'ID': 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123',
            'UnitCounters': None,
            'UpdateTime': '2023-10-14T17:58:23.801531205+11:00'}}

So now we’ve got a new balance named ‘5_minute_voice_balance‘:

  • The type is *voice, because this balance is storing talk time
  • The weight of this balance is 25, this means this balance should take priority over any balances with a lower value than 25 (that’s right, we can (and will) do tiered balances)
  • The value is 300000000000 nanoseconds, which equates to 5 minutes (yes, that’s the correct number of zeros)

Okay, but Nick_Test_123 probably wants to make some calls, so let’s generate a 2.5 minute call event and check out what happens.


#Generate a new call event for a 2.5 minute (150 second) call
Process_External_CDR_JSON = {
    "method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR",
    "params": [
        {
            "OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),
            "ToR": "*voice",
            "RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid",
            "AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "Usage": "150s",
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Process_External_CDR_JSON))

Alright, now we’ve got a call event, let’s call the GetAccount API again to check the balance:

#Print the Account Information
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.GetAccount','params':[{"Tenant":"cgrates.org","Account": "Nick_Test_123"}]}))
{'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': 'Nick_Test_123'}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'ActionTriggers': None,
            'AllowNegative': False,
            'BalanceMap': {'*voice': [{'Blocker': False,
                                       'Categories': None,
                                       'DestinationIDs': None,
                                       'Disabled': False,
                                       'ExpirationDate': '0001-01-01T00:00:00Z',
                                       'Factor': None,
                                       'ID': '5_minute_voice_balance',
                                       'RatingSubject': '',
                                       'SharedGroups': None,
                                       'TimingIDs': None,
                                       'Timings': None,
                                       'Uuid': '37423d07-d99a-40b1-851a-981c3df02cb3',
                                       'Value': 150000000000,
                                       'Weight': 25}]},
            'Disabled': False,
            'ID': 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123',
            'UnitCounters': None,
            'UpdateTime': '2023-10-14T17:58:23.80925546+11:00'}}

And there you have it, we’ve used 150 seconds of our 300 second (5 minutes) of talk time in this balance, leaving with us 150000000000 nanoseconds (150 seconds) remaining!

And with that progress, now is a great time to pause and talk about some theory that’s really important to grasp!

Balance Types

But *voice is just one balance type – We can support multiple balance types; we’ve just given a balance of *voice for talk time, but we could also give a credit to the balance for *sms or *data, you name it (*generic) and cash (*monetary) and we can have multiple separate balances for each.

This means we can have one account with something like:

  • 100 minutes of Local / National Calls (Expires at the end of the month)
  • 40 minutes of Mobile Calls (Expires 24 hours after it’s been created)
  • 80 minutes of Mobile Calls (During “Happy Hour” from 6 to 7pm)
  • 50 minutes of International Calls (Expires in 30 days)

And not just voice balance, the same account could also have:

  • 1GB of Data usage
  • 50 SMS to on-net destinations
  • $200 of Cash (expiring never)

Phew! That’s a lot of balances, but we can do it all through CGrateS!

What Balance to Use

So if we’ve got a stack of balances defined, how does CGrateS know what balance to use?

Firstly CGrateS is going to evaluate the BalanceType, this is set on events, so if we get an event for *data CGrateS will check out the balances available for *data, and evaluate the balances by Weight, with the highest weight evaluated first.
If we get to the end of all the available balances for that BalanceType, CGrateS then evaluates *generic and then *monetary balances, again, ordered by Weight.

We can set what balance gets used based on the Destination; using DestinationIDs we can filter the Balance to only apply for calls to Local/National numbers, so a call to an International destination won’t use that balance.

We can also set an Expiry on the Balance, for example we can give a customer 30 days to use the balance, after which it expires and can’t be used, likewise we can set Timings so enable scenarios like a “Happy hour” with extra calls between 6pm and 7pm.

When we define a balance we can also set the Blocker flag to True, if this is set, it means CGrateS will not look evaluate any balances after reaching that balance.

Adding a Balance for Local / National & Mobile Calls

Let’s jump back into the practice, and define two new Balances; one for Local/National calls, and another for Mobile calls.
But first we’ll need to know what destinations are mobiles and what are local/national (fixed). We’ve covered setting Destinations previously, so let’s set up the Destinations:


CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_Fixed","Prefixes":["612", "613", "617", "618"]}]})
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_Mobile","Prefixes":["614"]}]})
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_TollFree","Prefixes":["6113", "6118"]}]})
#Load TariffPlan we just defiend from StorDB to DataDB
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"APIerSv1.LoadTariffPlanFromStorDb","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","DryRun":False,"Validate":True,"APIOpts":None,"Caching":None}],"id":0}))

Alright, now let’s add a balance for our local/national (fixed) calls.

To do this, we’ll add two new balances, but we’ll need to differentiate this from the 5_minute_voice_balance we created earlier, and to achieve this we weill:

  • Set a higher Weight value than we have set on 5_minute_voice_balance (25) so this balance will get consumed before 5_minute_voice_balance does
  • Set the DestinationIDs to match the destinations (Dest_AU_Mobile for Mobile and Dest_AU_Fixed for Local/National) we want the balance to apply to

ProTip: When you we create our Balance we can set what Destinations we want to use this balance for, if you want to specify multiple balances, we can do it by setting the Balance names as a string delimited by semicolons, like “DestinationIDs”: “Dest_AU_Fixed;Dest_AU_Mobile;Dest_AU_TollFree”

We’ll also set a balance expiry, which we’ll cover shortly, but now let’s define out 100 minutes for Local/National expiring at the end of the month:

#Add a balance to the account with type *voice with 100 minutes of talk time to Local / National Destinations expiring at the end of the month
Create_Local_National_Voice_Balance_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV1.SetBalance",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "BalanceType": "*voice",
            "Categories": "*any",
            "Balance": {
                "ID": "Local_National_100_minutes_voice_balance",
                "Value": "100m",
                "ExpiryTime": "*month_end",
                "Weight": 60,
                "DestinationIDs": "Dest_AU_Fixed",
            }
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Local_National_Voice_Balance_JSON))

We’ll also add our 24 hours to use to use 40 minutes of talk to mobiles, and a GetAccount to check the result:

#Add a balance to the account with type *voice with 40 minutes of talk time to Mobile Destinations expiring in 24 hours
Create_Mobile_Voice_Balance_JSON = {
    "method": "ApierV1.SetBalance",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "BalanceType": "*voice",
            "Categories": "*any",
            "Balance": {
                "ID": "Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance",
                "Value": "40m",
                "ExpiryTime": "*daily",
                "Weight": 60,
                "DestinationIDs": "Dest_AU_Mobile",
            }
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Create_Mobile_Voice_Balance_JSON))

# Get Account Info Again
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV2.GetAccount", "params": [
              {"Tenant": "cgrates.org", "Account": "Nick_Test_123"}]}))

Alright, let’s try running that:

{'method': 'ApierV2.GetAccount', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': 'Nick_Test_123'}]}
{'error': None,
 'id': None,
 'result': {'ActionTriggers': None,
            'AllowNegative': False,
            'BalanceMap': {'*voice': [{'Blocker': False,
                                       'Categories': None,
                                       'DestinationIDs': None,
                                       'Disabled': False,
                                       'ExpirationDate': '0001-01-01T00:00:00Z',
                                       'Factor': None,
                                       'ID': '5_minute_voice_balance',
                                       'RatingSubject': '',
                                       'SharedGroups': None,
                                       'TimingIDs': None,
                                       'Timings': None,
                                       'Uuid': 'ad9d8bdd-64df-430f-af9d-3fc0410fd16b',
                                       'Value': 150000000000,
                                       'Weight': 25},
                                      {'Blocker': False,
                                       'Categories': None,
                                       'DestinationIDs': {'Dest_AU_Fixed': True},
                                       'Disabled': False,
                                       'ExpirationDate': '2023-10-31T23:59:59+11:00',
                                       'Factor': None,
                                       'ID': 'Local_National_100_minutes_voice_balance',
                                       'RatingSubject': '',
                                       'SharedGroups': None,
                                       'TimingIDs': None,
                                       'Timings': None,
                                       'Uuid': 'e4a2c211-8112-4e40-b3e6-250863404cc9',
                                       'Value': 6000000000000,
                                       'Weight': 60},
                                      {'Blocker': False,
                                       'Categories': None,
                                       'DestinationIDs': {'Dest_AU_Mobile': True},
                                       'Disabled': False,
                                       'ExpirationDate': '2023-10-15T18:15:11.521636734+11:00',
                                       'Factor': None,
                                       'ID': 'Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance',
                                       'RatingSubject': '',
                                       'SharedGroups': None,
                                       'TimingIDs': None,
                                       'Timings': None,
                                       'Uuid': 'd4cbf6d8-50a5-4c97-82c2-dfe9936ae8d1',
                                       'Value': 2400000000000,
                                       'Weight': 60}]},
            'Disabled': False,
            'ID': 'cgrates.org:Nick_Test_123',
            'UnitCounters': None,
            'UpdateTime': '2023-10-14T18:15:11.524242437+11:00'}}

Alright! We now have 3 balances defined!

Notice in the API in the expiry I put *daily and *month_end, but in the output it’s got a real date and time (I wrote this 14/10/23 around 07:00 UTC, hence why those dates are what they are).
I could have specified the date and time in the API of a specific time I wanted the balance to expire (You can too, just replace “*daily” with “2024-01-01T00:00:00Z” for example), but that’s a pain in the butt, especially considering most of the time these values will be something common.
The *month_end is a special “meta” value, there’s a heap of these that allow us to do things like “current time + 20 minutes” (+20m), this time next month (*monthly), “this time tomorrow” (*daily), or “this time next week” (+168h) – You can find the full list of special dates here.

From a product perspective, setting an expiry on balances means we can set credit to expire 2 years after the subscriber tops up, but the same logic can be used so a subscriber could purchase a 7 day addon pack, that expires in 7 days, or a monthly plan can automatically expire in 30 days.

Now if we call the ProcessExternalCDR API again with a call to a Mobile and a Fixed number, we’ll see the respective balances get deducted.


#Generate a new call event for a 2.5 minute (150 second) call to a mobile number
Process_External_CDR_JSON = {
    "method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR",
    "params": [
        {
            "OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),
            "ToR": "*voice",
            "RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid",
            "AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "Subject": "61412341234",
            "Destination": "61412341234",
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "Usage": "30s",
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Process_External_CDR_JSON))

#Generate a new call event for a 2.5 minute (150 second) call to a fixed line local/national number
Process_External_CDR_JSON = {
    "method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR",
    "params": [
        {
            "OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),
            "ToR": "*voice",
            "RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid",
            "AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "Subject": "61212341234",
            "Destination": "61212341234",
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "Usage": "30s",
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Process_External_CDR_JSON))

# Get Account Info Again
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV2.GetAccount", "params": [
              {"Tenant": "cgrates.org", "Account": "Nick_Test_123"}]}))

We should see the minutes reduced by 30 seconds for our Local_National_100_minutes_voice_balance and Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance balances, while our 5_minute_voice_balance hasn’t been touched.

{
   "Blocker":false,
   "Categories":"None",
   "DestinationIDs":"None",
   "Disabled":false,
   "ExpirationDate":"0001-01-01T00:00:00Z",
   "Factor":"None",
   "ID":"5_minute_voice_balance",
   "RatingSubject":"",
   "SharedGroups":"None",
   "TimingIDs":"None",
   "Timings":"None",
   "Uuid":"29f21735-1d62-49b1-9c53-80eab6f7b005",
   "Value":150000000000,
   "Weight":25
},
{
   "Blocker":false,
   "Categories":"None",
   "DestinationIDs":{
      "Dest_AU_Fixed":true
   },
   "Disabled":false,
   "ExpirationDate":"2023-10-31T23:59:59+11:00",
   "Factor":"None",
   "ID":"Local_National_100_minutes_voice_balance",
   "RatingSubject":"",
   "SharedGroups":"None",
   "TimingIDs":"None",
   "Timings":"None",
   "Uuid":"54db4f60-342e-4738-aaf1-a1304badc41d",
   "Value":5970000000000,
   "Weight":60
},
{
   "Blocker":false,
   "Categories":"None",
   "DestinationIDs":{
      "Dest_AU_Mobile":true
   },
   "Disabled":false,
   "ExpirationDate":"2023-10-15T18:32:34.888821482+11:00",
   "Factor":"None",
   "ID":"Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance",
   "RatingSubject":"",
   "SharedGroups":"None",
   "TimingIDs":"None",
   "Timings":"None",
   "Uuid":"501eb00e-e947-4675-926f-080911e66897",
   "Value":2370000000000,
   "Weight":60
}

One last thing we’ll try before we end, our Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance has still got 39.5 minutes left, and our 5_minute_voice_balance has still got minutes remaining, so if we try and make a call that’s 2450 seconds (~41 minutes), we should consume all the remaining minutes in Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance and the go onto consume the remaining 1 minute out of 5_minute_voice_balance.

Let’s test this theory!

#Generate a new call event for a 42 minute call to a mobile to use all of our Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance and start consuming 5_minute_voice_balance
Process_External_CDR_JSON = {
    "method": "CDRsV2.ProcessExternalCDR",
    "params": [
        {
            "OriginID": str(uuid.uuid1()),
            "ToR": "*voice",
            "RequestType": "*pseudoprepaid",
            "AnswerTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "SetupTime": now.strftime("%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"),
            "Subject": "61412341234",
            "Destination": "61412341234",
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Account": "Nick_Test_123",
            "Usage": "2450s",
        }
    ]
}
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData(Process_External_CDR_JSON))

# Get Account Info Again
pprint.pprint(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV2.GetAccount", "params": [
              {"Tenant": "cgrates.org", "Account": "Nick_Test_123"}]}))

Let’s check the output:

{
   "Blocker":false,
   "Categories":"None",
   "DestinationIDs":"None",
   "Disabled":false,
   "ExpirationDate":"0001-01-01T00:00:00Z",
   "Factor":"None",
   "ID":"5_minute_voice_balance",
   "RatingSubject":"",
   "SharedGroups":"None",
   "TimingIDs":"None",
   "Timings":"None",
   "Uuid":"29f21735-1d62-49b1-9c53-80eab6f7b005",
   "Value":70000000000,
   "Weight":25
},
...
{
   "Blocker":false,
   "Categories":"None",
   "DestinationIDs":{
      "Dest_AU_Mobile":true
   },
   "Disabled":false,
   "ExpirationDate":"2023-10-15T18:44:18.161474861+11:00",
   "Factor":"None",
   "ID":"Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance",
   "RatingSubject":"",
   "SharedGroups":"None",
   "TimingIDs":"None",
   "Timings":"None",
   "Uuid":"501eb00e-e947-4675-926f-080911e66897",
   "Value":0.0161939859,
   "Weight":60
}

Boom, there we have it! Used all of the minutes in Mobile_40_minutes_voice_balance and started eating into the 5_minute_voice_balance.

Alright, that was a long post! Sorry about that, and props for making it to the end, still so much to learn about CGrateS.

CGrateS MySQL Rounding Error

I put my rates in with a stack of decimal points, because accuracy matters!

But when I manually calculated the outputted costs associated with each transaction, I seemed to have some rounding errors.

So what was the issue?

The schema in MySQL was set to DECIMAL(10,4) which gives us 10 digits after the decimal point and 4 digits after.

A quick alter table and a reimport of the rates and I was on my way!

"alter table tp_rates modify column  rate DECIMAL(10,10);"

Lesson learned and hopefully of use to any other CGrateS users who may be using MySQL as a StoreDB.

CGrateS in Baby Steps – Part 4 – Rating Calls

In our last few posts we got CGrateS setup in order to have rates and tariffs in the system, so we can price a call.

Where we ended we were able to use the APIerSv1.GetCost method to get the cost of a call, and today, we’re going to actually create some rated CDRs.

So again this will be done through the API, using the CDRsV1.ProcessExternalCDR method.

So let’s give it a whirl:

#Add a CDR
print("Testing call..")
cdr = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "CDRsV1.ProcessExternalCDR", "params": [ { \
"Direction": "*out",
    "Category": "call",
    "RequestType": "*raw",
    "ToR": "*monetary",
    "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
    "Account": "1002",
    "Subject": "1002",
    "Destination": "61411111",
    "AnswerTime": "2022-02-15 13:07:39",
    "SetupTime": "2022-02-15 13:07:30",
    "Usage": "181s",
    "OriginID": "API Function Example"
    }], "id": 0})
pprint.pprint(cdr)

So the output of this, you may notice returns “Partially Executed” in the output, that’s no good.

{'method': 'CDRsV1.ProcessExternalCDR', 'params': [{'Direction': '*out', 'Category': 'call', 'RequestType': '*raw', 'ToR': '*monetary', 'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': '1002', 'Subject': '1002', 'Destination': '61411111', 'AnswerTime': '2022-02-15 13:07:39', 'SetupTime': '2022-02-15 13:07:30', 'Usage': '181s', 'OriginID': 'API Function Example'}], 'id': 0}
OrderedDict([('id', 0), ('result', None), ('error', 'PARTIALLY_EXECUTED')])

So what’s going on here?

Well, there’s another concept I haven’t introduced yet, and that’s ChargerS, this is a concept / component we’ll dig into deeper for derived charging, but for now just know we need to add a ChargerS rule in order to get CDRs rated:

#Define Charger
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({
    "method": "APIerSv1.SetChargerProfile",
    "params": [
        {
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "ID": "DEFAULT",
            'FilterIDs': [],
            'AttributeIDs' : ['*none'],
            'Weight': 0,
        }
    ]   }   ))   
#Set Charger
print("GetChargerProfile: ")
GetChargerProfile = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "ApierV1.GetChargerProfile", "params": [{"TPid": "cgrates.org", "ID" : "DEFAULT"}]})
print("GetChargerProfile: ")
pprint.pprint(GetChargerProfile)

Now if we try rating the CDR again we should get a successful output:

{'method': 'CDRsV1.ProcessExternalCDR', 'params': [{'Direction': '*out', 'Category': 'call', 'RequestType': '*raw', 'ToR': '*monetary', 'Tenant': 'cgrates.org', 'Account': '1002', 'Subject': '1002', 'Destination': '6141111124211', 'AnswerTime': '2022-02-15 13:07:39', 'SetupTime': '2022-02-15 13:07:30', 'Usage': '181s', 'OriginID': 'API Function Example'}], 'id': 0}
OrderedDict([('id', 0), ('result', 'OK'), ('error', None)])

Great, so where did the CDR go?

Well, if you’ve got CDR storage in StoreDB enabled (And you probably do if you’ve been following up until this point), then the answer is a MySQL table, and we can retrive the data with:

sudo mysql cgrates -e "select * from cdrs \G"

For those of you with a bit of MySQL experience under your belt, you’d be able to envisage using the SUM function to total a monthly bill for a customer from this.

Of course we can add CDRs via the API, and you probably already guessed this, but we can retrive CDRs via the API as well, filtering on the key criteria:

#Get CDRs
cdrs = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV1.GetCDRs", "params": [ { \
"Direction": "*out",
   "Tenants": ["cgrates.org"],
   "Accounts": ["1002"],
    "TimeStart": "2022-02-14 13:07:39",
    "TimeEnd": "2022-02-16 13:07:39",
    "Limit": 100
    }], "id": 0})
pprint.pprint(cdrs)

This would be useful for generating an invoice or populating recent calls for a customer portal.

Maybe creating rated CDRs and sticking them into a database is exactly what you’re looking to achieve in CGrateS – And if so, great, this is where you can stop – but for many use cases, there’s a want for an automated solution – For your platform to automatically integrate with CGrateS.

If you’ve got an Asterisk/FreeSWITCH/Kamailio or OpenSIPs based platform, then you can integrate CGrateS directly into your platform to add the CDRs automatically, as well as access features like prepaid credit control, concurrent call limits, etc, etc.
The process is a little different on each of these platforms, but ultimately under the hood, all of these platforms have some middleware that generates the same API calls we just ran to create the CDR.

So far this tutorial has been heavy on teaching the API, because that’s what CGrateS ultimately is – An API service.

Our platforms like Asterisk and Kamailio with the CGrateS plugins are just CGrateS API clients, and so once we understand how to use and interact with the API it’s a breeze to plug in the module for your platform to generate the API calls to CGrateS required to integrate.

You can find all the code used in today’s lesson in the GitHub repo for this tutorial series.

CGrateS in Baby Steps – Part 3 – RatingProfiles & RatingPlans

In our last post we introduced the CGrateS API and we used it to add Rates, Destinations and define DestinationRates.

In this post, we’ll create the RatingPlan that references the DestinationRate we just defined, and the RatingProfile that references the RatingPlan, and then, as the cherry on top – We’ll rate some calls.

For anyone looking at the above diagram for the first time, you might be inclined to ask why what is the purpose of having all these layers?

This layered architecture allows all sorts of flexibility, that we wouldn’t otherwise have, for example, we can have multiple RatingPlans defined for the same Destinations, to allow us to have different Products defined, with different destinations and costs.

Likewise we can have multiple RatingProfiles assigned for the same destinations to allow us to generate multiple CDRs for each call, for example a CDR to bill the customer with and a CDR with our wholesale cost.

All this flexibility is enabled by the layered architecture.

Define RatingPlan

Picking up where we left off having just defined the DestinationRate, we’ll need to create a RatingPlan and link it to the DestinationRate, so let’s check on our DestinationRates:

print("GetTPRatingProfileIds: ")
TPRatingProfileIds = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "ApierV1.GetRatingProfileIDs", "params": [{"TPid": "cgrates.org"}]})
print("TPRatingProfileIds: ")
pprint.pprint(TPRatingProfileIds)

From the output we can see we’ve got the DestinationRate defined, there’s a lot of info returned (I’ve left out most of it), but you can see the Destination, and the Rate associated with it is returned:

OrderedDict([('id', 1),
             ('result',
              OrderedDict([('TPid', 'cgrates.org'),
                           ('ID', 'DestinationRate_AU'),
                           ('DestinationRates',
                            [OrderedDict([('DestinationId', 'Dest_AU_Fixed'),
                                          ('RateId', 'Rate_AU_Fixed_Rate_1'),
                                          ('Rate', None),
                                          ('RoundingMethod', '*up'),
                                          ('RoundingDecimals', 4),
                                          ('MaxCost', 0),
                                          ('MaxCostStrategy', '')]),
                             OrderedDict([('DestinationId', 'Dest_AU_Mobile'),
                                          ('RateId', 'Rate_AU_Mobile_Rate_1'),
                                          ('Rate', None),
                                          ...

So after confirming that our DestinationRates are there, we’ll create a RatingPlan to reference it, for this we’ll use the APIerSv1.SetTPRatingPlan API call.

TPRatingPlans = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({
    "id": 3,
    "method": "APIerSv1.SetTPRatingPlan",
    "params": [
        {
            "TPid": "cgrates.org",
            "ID": "RatingPlan_VoiceCalls",
            "RatingPlanBindings": [
                {
                    "DestinationRatesId": "DestinationRate_AU",
                    "TimingId": "*any",
                    "Weight": 10
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
})

RatingPlan_VoiceCalls = CGRateS_Obj.SendData(
    {"jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "ApierV1.GetTPRatingPlanIds", "params": [{"TPid": "cgrates.org"}]})
print("RatingPlan_VoiceCalls: ")
pprint.pprint(RatingPlan_VoiceCalls)
print("\n\n\n")

In our basic example, this really just glues the DestinationRate_AU object to RatingPlan_VoiceCalls.

It’s worth noting that you can use a RatingPlan to link to multiple DestinationRates, for example, we might want to have a different RatingPlan for each region / country, we can do that pretty easily too, in the below example I’ve referenced other Destination Rates (You’d go about defining the DestinationRates for these other destinations / rates the same way as we did in the last example).

{
    "id": 3,
    "method": "APIerSv1.SetTPRatingPlan",
    "params": [
        {
            "TPid": "cgrates.org",
            "ID": "RatingPlan_VoiceCalls",
            "RatingPlanBindings": [
                {
                    "DestinationRatesId": "DestinationRate_USA",
                    "TimingId": "*any",
                    "Weight": 10
                },
                    "DestinationRatesId": "DestinationRate_UK",
                    "TimingId": "*any",
                    "Weight": 10
                },
                    "DestinationRatesId": "DestinationRate_AU",
                    "TimingId": "*any",
                    "Weight": 10
                },
                ...

One last step before we can test this all end-to-end, and that’s to link the RatingPlan we just defined with a RatingProfile.

StorDB & DataDB

Psych! Before we do that, I’m going to subject you to learning about backends for a while.

So far we’ve skirted around CGrateS architecture, but this is something we need to know for now.

To keep everything fast, a lot of data is cached in what is called a DataDB (if you’ve followed since part 1, then your DataDB is Redis, but there are other options).

To keep everything together, databases are used for storage, called StorDB (in our case we are using MySQL, but again, we can have other options) but calls to this database are minimal to keep the system fast.

If you’re an astute reader, you may have noticed many of our API calls have TP in method name, if the API call has TP in the name, it is storing it in the StoreDB, if it doesn’t, it means it’s storing it only in DataDB.

Why does this matter? Well, let’s look a little more closely and it will become clear:

ApierV1.SetRatingProfile will set the data only in DataDB (Redis), because it’s in the DataDB the change will take effect immediately.

ApierV1.SetTPRatingProfile will set the data only in StoreDB (MySQL), it will not take effect until it is copied from the database (StoreDB) to the cache (DataDB).

To do this we need to run:

cgr-console "load_tp_from_stordb Tpid=\"cgrates.org\" Cleanup=true Validate=true DisableDestinations=false"

Which pulls the data from the database into the cache, as you may have guessed there’s also an API call for this:

{"method":"APIerSv1.LoadTariffPlanFromStorDb","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","DryRun":False,"Validate":True,"APIOpts":None,"Caching":None}],"id":0}

After we define the RatingPlan, we need to run this command prior to creating the RatingProfile, so it has something to reference, so we’ll do that by adding:

print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"APIerSv1.LoadTariffPlanFromStorDb","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","DryRun":False,"Validate":True,"APIOpts":None,"Caching":None}],"id":0}))

Now, on with the show!

Defining a RatingProfile

The last piece of the puzzle to define is the RatingProfile.

We define a few key things in the rating profile:

  • The Tenant – CGrateS is multitenant out of the box (in our case we’ve used tenant named “cgrates.org“, but you could have different tenants for different customers).
  • The Category – As we covered in the first post, CGrateS can bill voice calls, SMS, MMS & Data consumption, in this scenario we’re billing calls so we have the value set to *call, but we’ve got many other options.
  • The Subject – This is loosely the Source / Calling Party; in our case we’re using a wildcard value *any which will match any Subject
  • The RatingPlanActivations list the RatingPlanIds of the RatingPlans this RatingProfile uses

So let’s take a look at what we’d run to add this:

#Reload data from StorDB
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"APIerSv1.LoadTariffPlanFromStorDb","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","DryRun":False,"Validate":True,"APIOpts":None,"Caching":None}],"id":0}))

#Create RatingProfile
print(CGRateS_Obj.SendData({
    "method": "APIerSv1.SetRatingProfile",
    "params": [
        {
            "TPid": "RatingProfile_VoiceCalls",
            "Overwrite": True,
            "LoadId" : "APItest",
            "Tenant": "cgrates.org",
            "Category": "call",
            "Subject": "*any",
            "RatingPlanActivations": [
                {
                    "ActivationTime": "2014-01-14T00:00:00Z",
                    "RatingPlanId": "RatingPlan_VoiceCalls",
                    "FallbackSubjects": ""
                }
            ]
        }
    ]
}))

print("GetTPRatingProfileIds: ")
TPRatingProfileIds = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"jsonrpc": "2.0", "method": "ApierV1.GetRatingProfileIDs", "params": [{"TPid": "cgrates.org"}]})
print("TPRatingProfileIds: ")
pprint.pprint(TPRatingProfileIds)

Okay, so at this point, all going well, we should have some data loaded, we’ve gone through all those steps to load this data, so now let’s simulate a call to a Mobile Number (22c per minute) for 123 seconds.

We can do this from the CLI:

cgr-console 'cost Category="call" Tenant="cgrates.org" Subject="1001" Destination="6140000" AnswerTime="2025-08-04T13:00:00Z" Usage="123s"'

We should get the cost back of 66 cents, as 3x 22 cents.

Call showing 66 cent cost

If that’s worked, breath a sigh of relief. That’s the worst done.*

As you may have guessed we can also check this through API calls,

print("Testing call..")
cdr = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "APIerSv1.GetCost", "params": [ { \
    "Tenant": "cgrates.org", \
    "Category": "call", \
    "Subject": "1001", \
    "AnswerTime": "2025-08-04T13:00:00Z", \
    "Destination": "6140000", \
    "Usage": "123s", \
    "APIOpts": {}
    }], "id": 0})
pprint.pprint(cdr)

And you should get the same output.

If you’ve had issues with this, I’ve posted a copy of the code in GitHub.

We’re done here. Well done. This one was a slog.

CGrateS in Baby Steps – Part 2 – Adding Rates and Destinations through the API

In our last post we dipped a toe into CGrateS.

We cheated a fair bit, to show something that worked, but it’s not something you’d probably want to use in real life, loading static CSV files gets us off the ground, but in reality we don’t want to manage a system through CSV files.

Instead, we’d want to use an API.

Fair warning – There is some familiarity expected with JSON and RESTful APIs required, we’ll use Python3 for our examples, but you can use any programing language you’re comfortable with, or even CURL commands.

So we’re going to start by clearing out all the data we setup in CGrateS using the cgr-loader tool from those imported CSVs:

redis-cli flushall
sudo mysql -Nse 'show tables' cgrates | while read table; do sudo mysql -e "truncate table $table" cgrates; done
cgr-migrator -exec=*set_versions -stordb_passwd=CGRateS.org
sudo systemctl restart cgrates

So what have we just done?
Well, we’ve just cleared all the data in CGrateS.
We’re starting with a blank slate.

In this post, we’re going to define some Destinations, some Rates to charge and then some DestinationRates to link each Destination to a Rate.

But this time we’ll be doing this through the CGrateS API.

Introduction to the CGrateS API

CGrateS is all API driven – so let’s get acquainted with this API.

I’ve written a simple Python wrapper you can find here that will make talking to CGRateS a little easier, so let’s take it for a spin and get the Destinations that are loaded into our system:

import cgrateshttpapi
CGRateS_Obj = cgrateshttpapi.CGRateS('172.16.41.133', 2080) #Replace this IP with the IP Address of your CGrateS instance...

destinations = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV1.GetTPDestinationIDs','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org"}]})['result']

#Pretty print the result:
print("Destinations: ")
pprint.pprint(destinations)

All going well you’ll see something like this back:

Initializing with host 172.16.41.133 on port 2080
Sending Request with Body:
{'method': 'ApierV2.Ping', 'params': [{'Tenant': 'cgrates.org'}]}
Sending Request with Body:
{'method': 'ApierV2.GetTPDestinationIDs', 'params': [{"TPid":"cgrates.org"}]}
Destinations from CGRates: []

So what did we just do?
Well, we sent a JSON formatted string to the CGRateS API at 172.16.41.133 on port 2080 – You’ll obviously need to change this to the IP of your CGrateS instance.

In the JSON body we sent we asked for all the Destinations using the ApierV1.GetTPDestinationIDs method, for the TPid ‘cgrates.org’,

And it looks like no destinations were sent back, so let’s change that!

Note: There’s API Version 1 and API Version 2, not all functions exist in both (at least not in the docs) so you have to use a mix.

Adding Destinations via the API

So now we’ve got our API setup, let’s see if we can add a destination!

To add a destination, we’ll need to go to the API guide and find the API call to add a destination – in our case the API call is ApierV2.SetTPDestination and will look like this:

{'method': 'ApierV2.SetTPDestination', 'params': [
    {"TPid": "cgrates.org", "ID": "Dest_AU_Mobile",
        "Prefixes": ["614"]}]}

So we’re creating a Destination named Dest_AU_Mobile and Prefix 614 will match this destination.

Note: I like to prefix all my Destinations with Dest_, all my rates with Rate_, etc, so it makes it easy when reading what’s going on what object is what, you may wish to do the same!

So we’ll use the Python code we had before to list the destinations, but this time, we’ll use the ApierV2.SetTPDestination API call to add a destination before listing them, let’s take a look:

import cgrateshttpapi
import pprint
import sys
CGRateS_Obj = cgrateshttpapi.CGRateS('172.16.41.133', 2080)

CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_Mobile","Prefixes":["614"]}]})

destinations = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV1.GetTPDestinationIDs','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org"}]})['result']
print("Destinations: ")
pprint.pprint(destinations)
print("\n\n\n")

Now if you run the code you’ll see something like this:

Initializing with host 172.16.41.133 on port 2080
Sending Request with Body:

Sending Request with Body:
{'method': 'ApierV2.SetTPDestination', 'params': [{'TPid': 'cgrates.org', 'ID': 'Dest_AU_Mobile', 'Prefixes': ['614']}]}

{'method': 'ApierV1.GetTPDestinationIDs', 'params': [{'TPid': 'cgrates.org'}]}
Destinations: 
['Dest_AU_Mobile']

Boom! There’s our added destination, le’s add a few more using the same process, so we’ve got a few other destinations defined:

CGRateS_Obj = cgrateshttpapi.CGRateS('172.16.41.133', 2080)

CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_Fixed","Prefixes":["612", "613", "617", "618"]}]})
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_Mobile","Prefixes":["614"]}]})
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV2.SetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org","ID":"Dest_AU_TollFree","Prefixes":["6113", "6118"]}]})



print("Destinations: ")
for destination in destinations:
    destination = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({'method':'ApierV1.GetTPDestination','params':[{"TPid":"cgrates.org", "ID" : str(destination)}]})['result']
    pprint.pprint(destination)
print("\n\n\n")
sys.exit()

After adding some prettier printing and looping through all the destinations, here’s what your destinations should look like:

OrderedDict([('TPid', 'cgrates.org'),
             ('ID', 'Dest_AU_Fixed'),
             ('Prefixes', ['612', '613', '617', '618'])])

OrderedDict([('TPid', 'cgrates.org'),
             ('ID', 'Dest_AU_Mobile'),
             ('Prefixes', ['614'])])

OrderedDict([('TPid', 'cgrates.org'),
             ('ID', 'Dest_AU_TollFree'),
             ('Prefixes', ['6113', '6118'])])

Notice for AU Fixed, we defined multiple prefixes under the same Destination? Just as items in the list.

So we’ve created a bunch of Destinations, like so:

NamePrefix
Dest_AU_TollFree6113 & 6118
Dest_AU_Fixed612, 613, 617 & 618
Dest_AU_Mobile614
Destinations we just created

Next let’s create some rates which we can then associate with these destinations.

Adding Rates via the API

So to begin with let’s see if we’ve got any rates defined, we can do this with another API call, this time the ApierV1.GetTPRateIds call.

{"method":"ApierV1.GetTPRateIds","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org"}]}

And at the moment that returns no results, so let’s add some rates.

For this we’ll use the ApierV1.SetTPRate function:

{"method":"ApierV1.SetTPRate","params":[{"ID":"Rate_AU_Mobile_Rate_1","TPid":"cgrates.org","RateSlots":[{"ConnectFee":0,"Rate":22,"RateUnit":"60s","RateIncrement":"60s","GroupIntervalStart":"0s"}]}],"id":1}

If we post this to the CGR engine, we’ll create a rate, named Rate_AU_Mobile_Rate_1 that bills 22 cents per minute, charged every 60 seconds.

Let’s add a few rates:

CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"ApierV1.SetTPRate","params":[{"ID":"Rate_AU_Mobile_Rate_1","TPid":"cgrates.org","RateSlots":[{"ConnectFee":0,"Rate":22,"RateUnit":"60s","RateIncrement":"60s","GroupIntervalStart":"0s"}]}],"id":1})
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"ApierV1.SetTPRate","params":[{"ID":"Rate_AU_Fixed_Rate_1","TPid":"cgrates.org","RateSlots":[{"ConnectFee":0,"Rate":14,"RateUnit":"60s","RateIncrement":"60s","GroupIntervalStart":"0s"}]}],"id":1})
CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"ApierV1.SetTPRate","params":[{"ID":"Rate_AU_Toll_Free_Rate_1","TPid":"cgrates.org","RateSlots":[{"ConnectFee":25,"Rate":0,"RateUnit":"60s","RateIncrement":"60s","GroupIntervalStart":"0s"}]}],"id":1})

TPRateIds = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method":"ApierV1.GetTPRateIds","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org"}]})['result']
print(TPRateIds)
for TPRateId in TPRateIds:
    print("\tRate: " + str(TPRateId))

All going well, when you add the above, we’ll have added 3 new rates:

Rate NameCost
Rate_AU_Fixed_Rate_114c per minute charged every 60s
Rate_AU_Mobile_Rate_122c per minute charged every 60s
Rate_AU_Toll_Free_Rate_125c connection, untimed
Rates we just created

Linking Rates to Destinations

So now with Destinations defined, and Rates defined, it’s time to link these two together!

Destination Rates link our Destinations and Route rates, this decoupling means that we can have one Rate shared by multiple Destinations if we wanted, and makes things very flexible.

For this example, we’re going to map the Destinations to rates like this:

DestinationRate NameDestination NameRate Name
DestinationRate_AUDest_AU_FixedRate_AU_Fixed_Rate_1
DestinationRate_AUDest_AU_MobileRate_AU_Mobile_Rate_1
DestinationRate_AUDest_AU_TollFreeRate_AU_Toll_Free_Rate_1
Destination_Rate_AU we will create

So let’s go about making this link in CGrateS, for this we’ll use the ApierV1.SetTPDestinationRate method to add the DestinationRate, and the ApierV1.GetTPDestinationRateIds to get the list of them.

CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV1.SetTPDestinationRate", "params": \
    [{"ID": "DestinationRate_AU", "TPid": "cgrates.org", "DestinationRates": \
        [ {"DestinationId": "Dest_AU_Fixed", "RateId": "Rate_AU_Fixed_Rate_1", "Rate": None, "RoundingMethod": "*up", "RoundingDecimals": 4, "MaxCost": 0, "MaxCostStrategy": ""} ]\
    }]})

TPDestinationRates = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"jsonrpc":"2.0","method":"ApierV1.GetTPDestinationRateIds","params":[{"TPid":"cgrates.org"}]})['result']
for TPDestinationRate in TPDestinationRates:
    pprint.pprint(TPDestinationRate)

All going well, you’ll see the new DestinationRate we added.

Here’s a good chance to show how we can add multiple bits of data in one API call, we can tweak the ApierV1.SetTPDestinationRate method and include all the DestinationRates we need in one API call:

CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"method": "ApierV1.SetTPDestinationRate", "params": [
        {"ID": "DestinationRate_AU", "TPid": "cgrates.org", "DestinationRates": [ \
            {"DestinationId": "Dest_AU_Fixed", "RateId": "Rate_AU_Fixed_Rate_1", "Rate": None, "RoundingMethod": "*up", "RoundingDecimals": 4, "MaxCost": 0, "MaxCostStrategy": ""},\
            {"DestinationId": "Dest_AU_Mobile", "RateId": "Rate_AU_Mobile_Rate_1", "Rate": None, "RoundingMethod": "*up", "RoundingDecimals": 4, "MaxCost": 0, "MaxCostStrategy": ""}, \
            {"DestinationId": "Dest_AU_TollFree", "RateId": "Rate_AU_Toll_Free_Rate_1", "Rate": None, "RoundingMethod": "*up", "RoundingDecimals": 4, "MaxCost": 0, "MaxCostStrategy": ""}\
     ]},
    ]})

As we’ve only created one DestinationRate, let’s take a look at the detail:

TPDestinationRate = CGRateS_Obj.SendData({"jsonrpc":"2.0","method":"ApierV1.GetTPDestinationRate","params":[{"ID":"DestinationRate_AU","TPid":"cgrates.org"}],"id":1})
pprint.pprint(TPDestinationRate)

Phew, okay, if you made it this far, congratulations.

So where we stand now is we’ve created Rates, Destinations and tied the two together.

I’ve put a copy of all the Python code on GitHub here, in case you’re having issues you can work with that.

In our next post, we’ll keep working our way up this diagram, by creating RatingPlans and RatingProfiles to reference the DestinationRate we just created.

CGrates – FreeSWITCH Interaction

In our last post we talked about setting rates in CGrates and testing them out, but what’s the point in learning a charging system without services to charge?

This post focuses on intergrating FreeSWITCH and CGrates, other posts cover integrating Asterisk and CGrates, Kamailio and CGrates and Diameter and CGrates.

Future posts in this series will focus on the CGrates side, but this post will be a bit of a sidebar to get our FreeSWITCH environment connected to CGrates so we can put all our rating and charging logic into FreeSWITCH.

CGrates interacts with FreeSWITCH via the Event-Socket-Language in FreeSWITCH, which I’ve written about before, in essence when enabled, CGrates is able to make decisions regarding if a call should proceed or not, monitor currently up calls, and terminate calls when a subscriber has used their allocated balance.

Adding ESL Binding Support in FreeSWITCH

The configuration for CGrates is defined through the cgrates.json file in /etc/cgrates on your rating server.

By default, FreeSWITCH’s event socket only listens on localhost, as it is a pretty huge security flaw to open it to the world, but in order for our CGrates server to be able to access we’ll need to bind it to an IP Address assigned to the FreeSWITCH server so we can reach it from elsewhere on the network.

<configuration name="event_socket.conf" description="Socket Client">
  <settings>
    <param name="nat-map" value="false"/>
    <param name="listen-ip" value="0.0.0.0"/>
    <param name="listen-port" value="8021"/>
    <param name="password" value="ClueCon"/>
    <param name="apply-inbound-acl" value="any_v4.auto"/>
  </settings>
</configuration>

Please setup the ACLs & password securely!

You may want to have CGrates installed on a different machine to your FreeSWITCH instance, or you may want to have multiple FreeSWITCH instances all getting credit control from CGrates.

Well, inside the cgrates.json config file, is where we populate the ESL connection details so CGrates can connect to FreeSWITCH.

"freeswitch_agent": {
        "enabled": true,
        "event_socket_conns":[
                {"address": "10.0.1.56:8021", "password": "ClueCon", "reconnects": -1,"alias":"Remote_FS_1"}
        ],
        "sessions_conns": ["*birpc_internal"],
        "empty_balance_ann_file": "/usr/share/freeswitch/sounds/en/us/callie/misc/8000/misc-your_call_has_been_terminated.wav",
        "empty_balance_ann_file": "/usr/share/freeswitch/sounds/en/us/callie/misc/8000/phone_not_auth.wav",
        "create_cdr": true
},

Dialplan Support

We’ll need to add the following config to our dialplan in order to tag in CGRates for the call.

 <extension name="unloop">
      <condition field="${unroll_loops}" expression="^true$" />
      <condition field="${sip_looped_call}" expression="^true$">
        <action application="deflect" data="${destination_number}" />
      </condition>
    </extension>
    <extension name="call_debug" continue="true">
      <condition field="${call_debug}" expression="^true$" break="never">
        <action application="info" />
      </condition>
    </extension>
   <extension name="CGRateS_Auth">
    <condition field="${cgr_notify}" expression="^$">
        <aciton application="log" data="In the CGRateS_Auth block" />
        <action application="info"/>
        <action application="park" />
      </condition>
    </extension>
    <extension name="CGRateS_AuthForbidden">
      <condition field="${cgr_notify}" expression="^-INSUFFICIENT_FUNDS$">
        <action application="log" data="Insufficent Funds" />
        <action application="set" data="proto_specific_hangup_cause=sip:403" />
        <action application="hangup" />
      </condition>
    </extension>
    <extension name="CGRateS_AuthForbidden">
      <condition field="${cgr_notify}" expression="^-UNAUTHORIZED_DESTINATION$">
        <action application="log" expression"CGrates Auth Forbidden" />
        <action application="set" data="proto_specific_hangup_cause=sip:403" />
        <action application="hangup" />
      </condition>
    </extension>
    <extension name="CGRateS_Error">
      <condition field="${cgr_notify}" expression="^-SYSTEM_ERROR$">
        <action application="set" data="proto_specific_hangup_cause=sip:503" />
        <action application="hangup" />
      </condition>
    </extension>
     <extension name="CGR Routes">
     <condition field="cgr_routes" expression=".+">
        <action application="log" data="In the CGR Routes block..." />
        <action application="set" data="cgr_route=${cgr_routes[1]}" />
      </condition>
    </extension>

Extension Support

Next we’ll need to tag the extensions we want to charge,

In order to do this we’ll need to set the type of the account (Ie. Prepaid, Postpaid, etc), and the flags to apply, which dictate which of the modules we’re going to use inside CGrateS.

FreeSWITCH won’t actually parse this info, it’s just passed to CGrateS.

<include>
  <user id="1001">
    <params>
      <param name="password" value="$${default_password}"/>
    </params>
    <variables>
      <variable name="accountcode" value="1001"/>
      <variable name="user_context" value="default"/>
      <variable name="effective_caller_id_number" value="1001"/>
      <variable name="outbound_caller_id_name" value="$${outbound_caller_name}"/>
      <variable name="outbound_caller_id_number" value="$${outbound_caller_id}"/>
      <variable name="cgr_reqtype" value="*prepaid"/>
      <variable name="cgr_flags" value="*resources;*attributes;*sessions;*routes;*thresholds;*stats;*accounts"/>
      <variable name="cgr_acd" value="30"/>
    </variables>
  </user>
</include>

If this is not set, the user won’t be charged.

And that’s pretty much it, when you restart FreeSWITCH and CGrates you should see in the CGrates log that it is connected to your FreeSWITCH instance, and when you make a call, FreeSWITCH will authorize it through CGrates.

We’ll get back into the nitty gritty about setting up CGrates in a future post, and cover setting up integration like this with other Platforms (Kamailio / Asterisk) and Protocols (Diameter & Radius) in future posts.

CGrates in Baby Steps – Part 1

So you have a VoIP service and you want to rate the calls to charge your customers?

You’re running a mobile network and you need to meter data used by subscribers?

Need to do least-cost routing?

You want to offer prepaid mobile services?

Want to integrate with Asterisk, Kamailio, FreeSWITCH, Radius, Diameter, Packet Core, IMS, you name it!

Well friends, step right up, because today, we’re talking CGrates!

So before we get started, this isn’t going to be a 5 minute tutorial, I’ve a feeling this may end up a big multipart series like some of the others I’ve done.
There is a learning curve here, and we’ll climb it together – but it is a climb.

Installation

Let’s start with a Debian based OS, installation is a doddle:

sudo wget -O - https://apt.cgrates.org/apt.cgrates.org.gpg.key | sudo apt-key add -
echo "deb http://apt.cgrates.org/debian/ nightly main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/cgrates.list
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install cgrates -y
apt-get install mysql-server redis-server git -y

We’re going to use Redis for the DataDB and MariaDB as the StorDB (More on these concepts later), you should know that other backend options are available, but for keeping things simple we’ll just use these two.

Next we’ll get the database and config setup,

cd /usr/share/cgrates/storage/mysql/
./setup_cgr_db.sh root CGRateS.org localhost
cgr-migrator -exec=*set_versions -stordb_passwd=CGRateS.org

Lastly we’ll clone the config files from the GitHub repo:

https://github.com/nickvsnetworking/CGrates_Tutorial

Rating Concepts

So let’s talk rating.

In its simplest form, rating is taking a service being provided and calculating the cost for it.

The start of this series will focus on voice calls (With SMS, MMS, Data to come), where the calling party (The person making the call) pays, so let’s imagine calling a Mobile number (Starting with 614) costs $0.22 per minute.

To perform rating we need to determine the Destination, the Rate to be applied, and the time to charge for.

For our example earlier, a call to a mobile (Any number starting with 614) should be charged at $0.22 per minute. So a 1 minute call will cost $0.22 and a 2 minute long call will cost $0.44, and so on.

We’ll also charge calls to fixed numbers (Prefix 612, 613, 617 and 617) at a flat $0.20 regardless of how long the call goes for.

So let’s start putting this whole thing together.

Introduction to RALs

RALs is the component in CGrates that takes care of Rating and Accounting Logic, and in this post, we’ll be looking at Rating.

The rates have hierarchical structure, which we’ll go into throughout this post. I took my notepad doodle of how everything fits together and digitized it below:

Destinations

Destinations are fairly simple, we’ll set them up in our Destinations.csv file, and it will look something like this:

#Id,Prefix
DST_AUS_Mobile,614
DST_AUS_Fixed,612
DST_AUS_Fixed,613
DST_AUS_Fixed,617
DST_AUS_Fixed,618
DST_AUS_Toll_Free,611300
DST_AUS_Toll_Free,611800

Each entry has an ID (referred to higher up as the Destination ID), and a prefix.

Also notice that some Prefixes share an ID, for example 612, 613, 617 & 618 are under the Destination ID named “DST_AUS_Fixed”, so a call to any of those prefixes would match DST_AUS_Fixed.

Rates

Rates define the price we charge for a service and are defined by our Rates.csv file.

#Id,ConnectFee,Rate,RateUnit,RateIncrement,GroupIntervalStart
RT_22c_PM,0,22,60s,60s,0s
RT_20c_Untimed,20,0,60s,60s,0s
RT_25c_Flat,25,0,60s,60s,0s

Let’s look at the fields we have:

  • ID (Rate ID)
  • ConnectFee – This is the amount charged when the call is answered / connected
  • The Rate is how much we will charge, it’s loosely cents, but could be any currency. By default CGrates looks down to 4 decimal places.
  • RateUnit is how often this rate is applied in seconds
  • RateIncriment is how often this is evaluated in seconds
  • GroupIntervalStart – Activates an event when triggered

So let’s look at how this could be done, and the gotchas that exist.

So let’s look at some different use cases and how we’d handle them.

Per Minute Billing

This would charge a rate per minute, at the start of the call, the first 60 seconds will cost the caller $0.25.

At the 61 second mark, they will be charged another $0.25.

60 seconds after that they will be charged another $0.25 and so on.

#Id,ConnectFee,Rate,RateUnit,RateIncrement,GroupIntervalStart
RT_25c_PM_PerMinute_Billing,0,25,60s,60s,0s

This is nice and clean, a 1 second call costs $0.25, a 60 second call costs $0.25, and a 61 second call costs $0.50, and so on.

This is the standard billing mechanism for residential services, but it does not pro-rata the call – For example a 1 second call is the same cost as a 59 second call ($0.25), and only if you tick over to 61 seconds does it get charged again (Total of $0.50).

Per Second Billing

If you’re doing a high volume of calls, paying for a 3 second long call where someone’s voicemail answers the call and was hung up, may seem a bit steep to pay the same for that as you would pay for 59 seconds of talk time.

Instead Per Second Billing is more common for high volume customers or carrier-interconnects.

This means the rate still be set at $0.25 per minute, but calculated per second.

So the cost of 60 seconds of call is $0.25, but the cost of 30 second call (half a minute) should cost half of that, so a 30 second call would cost $0.125.

#Id,ConnectFee,Rate,RateUnit,RateIncrement,GroupIntervalStart
RT_25c_PM_PerSecond_Billing,0,25,60s,1s,0s

How often we asses the charging is defined by the RateIncrement parameter in the Rate Table.

We could achieve the same outcome another way, by setting the RateIncriment to 1 second, and the dividing the rate per minute by 60, we would get the same outcome, but would be more messy and harder to maintain, but you could think of this as $0.25 per minute, or $0.004166667 per second ($0.25/60 seconds).

Flat Rate Billing

Another option that’s commonly used is to charge a flat rate for the call, so when the call is answered, you’re charged that rate, regardless of the length of the call.

Regardless if the call is for 1 second or 10 hours, the charge is the same.

#Id,ConnectFee,Rate,RateUnit,RateIncrement,GroupIntervalStart
RT_25c_Flat,25,0,60s,60s,0s

For this we just set the ConnectFee, leaving the Rate at 0, so the cost will be applied on connection, with no costs applied per time period.

This means a 1 second call will cost $0.25, while a 3600 second call will still cost $0.25.

We charge a connect fee, but no rate.

Linking Destinations to the Rates to Charge

Now we’ve defined our Destinations and our Rates, we can link the two, defining what Destinations get charged what Rates.

This is defined in DestinationRates.csv

#Id,DestinationId,RatesTag,RoundingMethod,RoundingDecimals,MaxCost,MaxCostStrategy
DR_AUS_Mobile,DST_AUS_Mobile,RT_22c_PM,*up,4,0.12,*disconnect
DR_AUS_Fixed,DST_AUS_Fixed,RT_20c_Untimed,*up,4,0.12,*disconnect
DR_AUS_Toll_Free,DST_AUS_Toll_Free,RT_25c_Flat,*up,4,0.12,*disconnect

Let’s look at the Fields,

  • ID (Destination Rate ID)
  • DestinationID – Refers to the DestinationID defined in the Destinations.csv file
  • RatesTag – Referes to the Rate ID we defined in Rates.csv
  • RoundingMethod – Defines if we round up or down
  • RoundingDecimals – Defines how many decimal places to consider before rounding
  • MaxCost – The maximum cost this can go up to
  • MaxCostStrategy – What to do if the Maximum Cost is reached – Either make the rest of the call Free or Disconnect the call

So for each entry we’ll define an ID, reference the Destination and the Rate to be applied, the other parts we’ll leave as boilerplate for now, and presto. We have linked our Destinations to Rates.

Rating Plans

We may want to offer different plans for different customers, with different rates.

That’s what we define in our Rating Plans.

#Id,DestinationRatesId,TimingTag,Weight
RP_AUS,DR_AUS_Mobile,*any,10
RP_AUS,DR_AUS_Fixed,*any,10
RP_AUS,DR_AUS_Toll_Free,*any,10
  • ID (RatingPlanID)
  • DestinationRatesId (As defined in DestinationRates.csv)
  • TimingTag – References a time profile if used
  • Weight – Used to determine what precedence to use if multiple matches

So as you may imagine we need to link the DestinationRateIDs we just defined together into a Rating Plan, so that’s what I’ve done in the example above.

Rating Profiles

The last step in our chain is to link Customers / Subscribers to the profiles we’ve just defined.

How you allocate a customer to a particular Rating Plan is up to you, there’s numerous ways to approach it, but for this example we’re going to use one Rating Profile for all callers coming from the “cgrates.org” tenant:

#Tenant,Category,Subject,ActivationTime,RatingPlanId,RatesFallbackSubject
cgrates.org,call,*any,2014-01-14T00:00:00Z,RP_AUS,

Let’s go through the fields here,

  • Tenant is a grouping of Customers
  • Category is used to define the type of service we’re charging for, in this case it’s a call, but could also be an SMS, Data usage, or a custom definition.
  • Subject is typically the calling party, we could set this to be the Caller ID, but in this case I’ve used a wildcard “*any”
  • ActivationTime allows us to define a start time for the Rating Profile, for example if all our rates go up on the 1st of each month, we can update the Plans and add a new entry in the Rating Profile with the new Plans with the start time set
  • RatingPlanID sets the Rating Plan that is used as we defined in RatingPlans.csv

Loading the Rates into CGrates

At the start we’ll be dealing with CGrates through CSV files we import, this is just one way to interface with CGrates, there’s others we’ll cover in due time.

CGRates has a clever realtime architecture that we won’t go into in any great depth, but in order to load data in from a CSV file there’s a simple handy tool to run the process,

root@cgrateswitch:/home/nick# cgr-loader -verbose -path=/home/nick/tutorial/ -flush_stordb

Obviously you’ll need to replace with the folder you cloned from GitHub.

Trying it Out

In order for CGrates to work with Kamailio, FreeSWITCH, Asterisk, Diameter, Radius, and a stack of custom options, for rating calls, it has to have common mechanisms for retrieving this data.

CGrates provides an API for rating calls, that’s used by these platforms, and there’s a tool we can use to emulate the signaling for call being charged, without needing to pickup the phone or integrate a platform into it.

root@cgrateswitch:/home/nick# cgr-console 'cost Category="call" Tenant="cgrates.org" Subject="3005" Destination="614" AnswerTime="2014-08-04T13:00:00Z" Usage="60s"'

The tenant will need to match those defined in the RatingProfiles.csv, the Subject is the Calling Party identity, in our case we’re using a wildcard match so it doesn’t matter really what it’s set to, the Destination is the destination of the call, AnswerTime is time of the call being answered (pretty self explanatory) and the usage defines how many seconds the call has progressed for.

The output is a JSON string, containing a stack of useful information for us, including the Cost of the call, but also the rates that go into the decision making process so we can see the logic that went into the price.

{
 "AccountSummary": null,
 "Accounting": {},
 "CGRID": "",
 "Charges": [
  {
   "CompressFactor": 1,
   "Increments": [
    {
     "AccountingID": "",
     "CompressFactor": 1,
     "Cost": 0,
     "Usage": "0s"
    },
    {
     "AccountingID": "",
     "CompressFactor": 1,
     "Cost": 25,
     "Usage": "1m0s"
    }
   ],
   "RatingID": "febb614"
  }
 ],
 "Cost": 25,
 "Rates": {
  "7d4a755": [
   {
    "GroupIntervalStart": "0s",
    "RateIncrement": "1m0s",
    "RateUnit": "1m0s",
    "Value": 25
   }
  ]
 },
 "Rating": {
  "febb614": {
   "ConnectFee": 0,
   "MaxCost": 0.12,
   "MaxCostStrategy": "*disconnect",
   "RatesID": "7d4a755",
   "RatingFiltersID": "7e42edc",
   "RoundingDecimals": 4,
   "RoundingMethod": "*up",
   "TimingID": "c15a254"
  }
 },
 "RatingFilters": {
  "7e42edc": {
   "DestinationID": "DST_AUS_Mobile",
   "DestinationPrefix": "614",
   "RatingPlanID": "RP_AUS",
   "Subject": "*out:cgrates.org:call:3005"
  }
 },
 "RunID": "",
 "StartTime": "2014-08-04T13:00:00Z",
 "Timings": {
  "c15a254": {
   "MonthDays": [],
   "Months": [],
   "StartTime": "00:00:00",
   "WeekDays": [],
   "Years": []
  }
 },
 "Usage": "1m0s"
}

So have a play with setting up more Destinations, Rates, DestinationRates and RatingPlans, in these CSV files, and in our next post we’ll dig a little deeper… And throw away the CSVs all together!