Categories
Kamailio Linux Voice over IP

Kamailio 101 – Part 2 – Installation & First Run

Installing Kamailio on Ubuntu, basic rules for wring config files and we respond to SIP messages!


This tutorial will use Kamailio on Ubuntu 18.04, installed from the default repos using apt-get, but these concepts will apply to any version 4.x Kamailio instance, though some of your directories & file names may differ.

After setting up our Ubuntu box we’ll update our repos and install Kamailio

apt-get update 
apt-get install kamailio*

Now we’ve installed Kamailio with all the extra modules and plugins.

In production you’d only install what you need, but this would mean our development environment won’t be complaining about not having modules, so we’re installing the lot.

So now Kamailio is installed we can get to work making it do something.

Kamailio is driven by a text based config file that defines the routing rules and how we’ll handle SIP messages.

You need to specify how to handle the different types of SIP messages (aka SIP methods / requests), in a way the other devices communicating with it will understand and that generally follows the standards.

But for our example, we’ll create a really basic config that replies to any SIP message sent to it, saying it doesn’t know how to handle that message.

We’ll open kamailio.cfg – the text file that contains all our routing info, and get to work.

vi /etc/kamailio/kamailio.cfg

You’ll see the config starts by defining what modules to load, and the config for each of these modules. For us, the defaults will work for now, let’s get to the juicy bits. Keep moving down the config file until you hit this section:

/* Main SIP request routing logic
 * - processing of any incoming SIP request starts with this route
 * - note: this is the same as route { ... } */
request_route {

The request_route section is what handles the initial SIP message that comes through.

We’ll remove all the text after request_route { leaving us with a blank canvas in terms of how we handle messages. We’ll then put in a single line to log to syslog when we get a SIP message:

/* Main SIP request routing logic
 * - processing of any incoming SIP request starts with this route
 * - note: this is the same as route { ... } */
request_route {
        xlog("I got a message");
}

If we were to stop here and restart Kamailio, when a SIP message comes into our SIP server, we’d just write an entry to syslog saying “I got a message” each time we get a SIP message, but Kamailio won’t respond to the received SIP message, it’ll just enter a log entry each time it gets a SIP message. So let’s respond to any SIP message we get with a 501 “Not Implemented” message.

/* Main SIP request routing logic
 * - processing of any incoming SIP request starts with this route
 * - note: this is the same as route { ... } */
request_route {
        xlog("I got a message");
        sl_reply("501", "Not Implemented");
}

So let’s break down the two functions we just used.

xlog(“”);

xlog is your friend.
Put simply xlog prints whatever you put inside the parenthesis to syslog.
You can use it to check to see if your messages are getting to the part of the config you want, check what pseudovariables are doing and many other things, but I’m getting ahead of myself. For now you just need to know xlog is like NoOp() in Asterisk, print() in Python, etc.

sl_reply();

sl_reply is stateless reply.
It takes two parameters, the SIP Response Code and the text to go with it, when called it sends the SIP response code and text back to the requester.
In this case we’re using SIP Response Code 501, which translates to Not Implemented, meaning the server does not support the functionality required to fulfill the request aka:

Essentially what a 501 response translates to

Putting it into Play

Now let’s restart Kamailio to make our config live, point a SIP endpoint at it and see what happens!

First we’ll restart Kamailio:

/etc/init.d/kamailio restart

All going well you’ll restart Kamailio and be good to go:

After restarting via init.d you should see [ok] if it restarted sucesfully

Now let’s fire some traffic at it and see what happens.
I’m using tcpdump to capture traffic on port 5060, and I’ve setup a SIP endpoint that’s going to try and register to our IP to see what we get:

Presto – REGISTER message received and 501 response

So this is exciting, we now have a SIP server that can do nothing except let people know it can do nothing.

Let’s dig a bit deeper into the fundamentals and then we’ll have a good foundation to start building from, and get to work on stitching everything together to create something useful.

Link to Part 3 | Back to Part 1

5 replies on “Kamailio 101 – Part 2 – Installation & First Run”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *