There’s no such thing as a free lunch, and 5G is the same – services running through a 5G Standalone core need to be billed. In 5G Core Networks, the SMF (Session Management Function) reaches out to the CHF (Charging Function) to perform online charging, via the Nchf_ConvergedCharging Service Based Interface (aka reference point). Like […]
A look at Centralized vs DeCentralized Online Charging with the aid of sugar.
After headaches importing elevation (DEM) data into Forsk Atoll, I found a better mechanism for converting them, I’d been having issues with as soon as the elevation passed 255 meters, resetting to 0 in the PNG as it didn’t understand values beyond this. I was able to open the elevation data in GlobalMapper (You can […]
A look at the Equipment Identity Register in 5G Core
A glimpse into the complexities of prepaid billing (Online Charging) Diameter based networks.
Using mod_httpapi to HTTP POST call recordings to a remote server
Setting up Open5Gs without a NAT requirement, and the routing required to do so.
Using ENUM to resolve E.164 numbers into SIP URIs using Kamailio.
A look at how the HSS can update the profile of an already in-use subscription using Insert Subscriber Data Request/Response.
How turning mobile data off, doesn’t, in LTE and 5G.
A few .bashrc tweaks to improve the ‘history’ command
The strange history and triumphs of a group formed to protest the removal of letters from the dialing plan.
A Bind environment in a Docker container for experimenting and learning ENUM for DNS based Call Routing.
Using DNS to resolve E.164 phone numbers to routable SIP URIs
Chances are if you’re reading this, you’re trying to work out what Telephony Binary-Coded Decimal encoding is. I got you. Again I found myself staring at encoding trying to guess how it worked, reading references that looped into other references, in this case I was encoding MSISDN AVPs in Diameter. How to Encode a number […]
As the number of Private Networks built on LTE and 5G grow, how will PLMN allocation be managed?
How does “Network Time” actually get to the UE?
A look at the 4 types of Diameter Agent
A look at tuning your SCTP parameters to detect failures quickly and reduce dropped packets when they happen.